51 Romans push into Corwall and Wales. Caratacus, a Welsh leader, is captured.

59 Roman Suetonius Paulinus took over the British area, taking some of North Wales and massacring the Celts, their Druids, women and children upon landing at Anglesey.

Queen Boudicca of the Iceni led a revolt against the Romans in what became known as East Anglia, Britannia. She is described by a Roman writer, Dio Cassius who wrote she "was of huge frame and terrifying aspect with a harsh voice. A great mass of bright red hair fell to her knees".

75 Aithech Tuatha, Carbri ruled Ireland.

Weaker kings followed Conor MacNessa, the Firbolgs were in the streets, in what was called the Aithech Tuatha (revolt of the rent-paying people). The Firbolg grew more bold. they organized and were led by Carbri Cinn Cait, a man said to have a head shaped like a cat's. Carbri offered the Milesians a peace, and to celebrate, he arranged a great banquet at Magh Croin in Galway. All the Milesian leaders were invited to attend. The Milesians wanted to end the strife in Ireland and a return to civility, so they attended this Firbolg feast.

After all were seated and the main meal begun, the Milesian were slaughtered where they sat. Carbri the Firbolg was Ard Righ (high king) of Ireland, the 101st. He ruled brutally for five years. When he died his son, Morann, refused the crown saying it should be returned to the more genteel Milesians. This was done and Morann became a noted Brehon, a lawgiver of Ireland. He became the Chief Justice of Ireland and was noted for his judgements. He was also noted for being the first person in Ireland to believe in a single, all knowing, all powerful god.

78 The Roman General Agricola succeeds in subjecting North Wales. He then goes to Scotland to fight the Celtic tribes there. In his reports he identifies 17 separate tribes. Agricola builds a series of forts separating the highlands from the lowlands.

77 Julius Agricola finished the conquering of Wales, entered Scotland to the Tweed (current eastern line between England and Scotland), but was recalled to Rome in 83 or 84. His son in law, Tacitus, wrote during this time.

81 Agricola considers invading Ireland, he decided against it.

84 The Battle of Mons Graupius, Scotland where Agricola defeated the Celts under Calgácus.

100 Feradach is High King in Ireland.

117 A great force of Picts pushed the Romans back to the short line between the Tyne and the Solway Firth.

120 Emperor Hadrian of Rome orders a wall to be built connecting the forts of Agricola separating the Scottish Lowlands from the Highlands. The wall is known as Hadrian's Wall.

150 Ptolemy reported Brigantes Celts in Yorkshire up to Scotland, a fierce fighting people, their tribal center at Stanwick, North Riding. To their east were the Parisi Celts at Petuaria, coming from the plains of north east Gaul.

160 Another wall is built further north of Hadrian's Wall in Scotland by Roman General Antoninus.

200 Kingdom of Meath founded in Ireland by Conn. He later was the High King of Ireland. The name of the province Connacht often anglicized to Connaught, gets its name from him. During his reign there was an organization formed called the Fian made up of soldiers and police.

208 Invasion of the Scottish Highlands by the Roman General Severus.

260 Germanic tribes push remaining Celts from the Rhine toward the Atlantic.

275 Cormac, grandson of Conn, is High King of Ireland. He founds Tara as the Capital of Ancient Ireland. He brought the windmill to Ireland. He ruled for 40 years. He made Scotland a part of his kingdom.

About this time there was in the Roman Army an Irishman by the Latin name of Carausius. He was appointed by Emperor Diocletian as the Commander in Gaul. On the Rhine there was a Roman unit, a predecessor of Irish units in foreign armies called the Primi Scotti. With this group as his nucleus, Carausius left the Roman service with elements of the army he commanded in Gaul, and set himself up to rule England, as the King of the Britons. For seven years Britain was ruled by this Irish King.

300c Irish raids begin against Roman Britain.

360 Gallic monastery in Tours founded by Saint Martin.

367 Saxons, Frank, Jutes, Attacotti (from the Western Islands; Orkneys and Hebrides) and Picts pushed the Celts from the continent to Britain and Ireland.

Picts raid Britain from Scotland.

St. Ninian teaches Christianity from Whithorn, Galloway, Scotland.

377 Niall of the Nine Hostages is High King in Ireland.

Eusebius Hieronymus identified people of Galatia (central Turkey) spoke the same Celtic dialect as those in Treveri, at Trier, Germany.

Gold was extracted from south Wales, copper from Anglesey, iron from Sussex and the forest of Dean. Roman villas included modest homes to ornate residences.

400c Patrick is captured in Wales, or western Britain, and brought to what is now County Mayo, Ireland and made a slave.

Celestius, an religious Irish lawyer and zealot living in Rome fostered first the Pelagian and then the Nestorian controversies in the Catholic Church.

Saxons, Angles, Jutes, and Franks raid Britain from the continent.

Romans begin a withdrawal from Britain.

Increased migrations into Scotland and Wales from Ireland.

Cunedda led the Votadini to North Wales.

406 Visigoths, Vandals, Lugi, and Ostrogoths push across the Rhine into Gaul and Spain; Burgundians and Visagoths moved into Alsace.

409 Amorica rebels against the Romans.

410 Romans formally announce their withdrawal from Britain. Alaric the Goth sacked Rome, requiring all Romans return home to fight

Romans start their evacuation of the Britain Isles, all Roman government dissolved by 442 or 446. Germanic Anglians increase invasion from the north of Europe, calling themselves Anglo Saxons and Jutes, settling in Kent and the Isle of Wright.

428 Patrick, using the shamrock, explains to King Laohaire at Tara the Blessed Trinity.

450 Patrick founded a Cathedral in Dublin (Saint Patrick's).

The beginning of political activity in Wales which led to the formation of the kingdoms of Gnynedd in the northwest, Powis in the northeast, Dehenbarth in the southwest, and Morgann and Gwent in the southeast. The kingdoms were firmly in place by 600.

The spread of Irish monasticism into Wales.

End of the La Tene era in Ireland.

The capital of the kings of Ulster is destroyed. The Ui Neill and the Eoganachta divide Ireland north and south between them.

461 Saint Patrick died at Saul, County Down, Ireland.

EUROPEAN CELTS

AMERICAN CELTS

500 Battle of Mount Badon in which the Saxons won a big victory over the Celtic Britons. From this point in history the

Saxons and Angles control England.

Amorica became known as Brittany.

Scotland was divided into: Dalraidia, which was inhabited by the Scots (originally Irish, Caesar called the Irish Scoti and thus the term Scots); The Picts inhabited Pictland which was divided into South and North by subtribes of Picts; the Angles controlled an area known as Bernicia, and the Britons held a portion of Scotland known as Strathclyde.

547 The King of Bernicia was Ide.

549 A plague swept Scotland.

550 Saint Brendan the Navigator and former Bishop of Kerry discovers America.

563 Saint Columba from a base on the island of Iona begins conversion of the Picts of Scotland. It is said he founded 100 monasteries and 365 churches. Other Irish religious notables of the period include Saint Brigid, Saint Kilian, Saint Columbanus, and Saint Augustine.

564 Brude was King of Pictland.

574 Columba (who converted much of England to Christianity) returned to Ireland to beg for the sacred Druid oak trees, alas, in vain.

577 West Saxon Ceawlin slew three Briton kings, Commail, Condida and Farinmail at Dyrham, taking Gloucester, Cirencester and Bath in the Battle of Dyrham which permanently separated the Welsh Celts and the Celts in Devon and Cornwall.

577 Battle of Dyrham, Scotland.

More migrations of Irish into Wales, Scotland and Brittany. The Irish migrants in Scotland congregate at Argyill.

590 Irish priests and monks build churches and monasteries in England, Italy, France, Switzerland Austria and Germany in the sixth and seventh century. Among them were Saints; Columbanus, Fridolin, Cilian, Columba, Cuthbert, Augustine, Paulinus, and Gallus. These institutions sheltered, protected, and preserved the light of civilization and The Faith during the Dark Ages.

592 There is evidence there were Irish missionaries in the present counties of Wyoming and Boone in West Virginia. Though the evidence is in the form of Ogham writing which goes back much further, it is known scholarly monks of this period and later used it as a method of cryptographic writing.

613 Northumbrian Angles defeated Britons at Chester, dividing Strathclyde and Welsh Celts, ending larger Celt resistance and dividing what was a long strip of Celts from the wall to Land's End into three smaller groups unable to communicate without using the sea. Romanized Celts fled with other Celts, losing their advanced culture.

650 Irish monastic schools flourish and produce masterpieces in illuminated manuscripts.

663 Synod of Whitby

685 Battle of Nechtansmere (Dunnichen) in which the Angles of Bernicia led by Ecgfrith were defeated by the Scots.

697 Lex Innocentium at the Synod of Birr forbid women to fight.

700c The Tara Brooch, and the Ardagh Chalice two examples of the high level of metal-working produced in Ireland are crafted at the peak of the period.

Saint Pinian, a missionary of Saint Patrick, becomes the patron saint of Cornish tin miners.

757 Beginning of the construction of Offa's Dike in Wales which became the demarcation line with England.

795 Viking raids begin.

815 Ecbert begins an eight year effort to subjugate West Wales and Cornwall.

825 Egbert, subdued the Celts in Cornwall, bringing all England under one rule.

830 Danish Vikings under Turgesius sailed up the Shannon River and Bann River and established colonies.

Limerick founded by Danish Vikings.

The Danes founded Waterford and Cork.

838 Battle of Hengestesdun (Hingston Down) in which the Cornish, with Danish allies, were defeated by the English.

841c Dublin founded by Danish Vikings as well as other coastal areas.

Though the Danish were the dominant Viking group present there were also Vikings in Ireland during this period from Norway, and Sweden.

The Viking raiders took Irish women back to Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and places in between. Many Vikings in the Irish settlements married Irish women so that relationships were established. Before long it was not simply the Dane against the Swedish Viking, but each had with them Irish allies developed through family relationships.

843 Kenneth McAlpin, King of the Picts and of the Irish in Scotland, called his kingdom - Alba. From this period forth the

Picts and Scots are considered one.

Bernicia became Lothia and Strathclyde became Cambria.

844 Beginning of the reign of Rhodri the Great in Wales. He ruled until 878.

850 Norse attacks begin in Wales and continue off and on until 1063.

910 Hywel the Good rules Wales by accepting English domination. He was king until 950.

~973 The royal line of Strathclyde died out and the territory that was Strathclyde is now a part of Alba.

980 Malachy, High King of Ireland, defeated the Danes in a battle at Tara. The men of Leinster had allied with the Danes.

Malachy next occupied Dublin.

983 Scandanavian tradition relates that Ari Marson sailed from Ireland to a place south of Vinland, around the Chesapeake Bay area, landed and found Irish missionaries. There after, the land was known and written on Norse, and then other maps as Greater Ireland.

1000 Nomenoe, a Breton hero, conquered the cities of Nantes and Rennes.

1002 Brian Boru emerged as High King.

1005 Malcolm II was King of Alba.

1014 Battle of Clontarf where Brian Boru defeats the Vikings but is killed as is his son and grandson, in the fighting.

1018 Battle of Caham won by Malcolm II of Alba over the Lothians. Duncan, grandson of Malcom, succeeds as King of Alba and Lothia.

1039 Wales was ruled by Grufydd ap Lewelyn until 1063.

1040 Duncan of Alba and Lothia killed by Macbeth of Moray.

1057 Macbeth died, Malcolm III succeeds as the new ruler of Alba.

1066 Norman invasion of England, Rhys ap Tewdr of Dehenbarth negotiates a halt of the Norman advance into Wales at Wye Gap.

1068 Malcolm III married an English Princess (Margaret), from this point on Scottish monarchs are at least one half English.

1092 William of Orange invades Alba.

1093 Welsh leader, Rhys ap Tewdr, dies in battle against the Normans and the Normans advance into Wales.

Malcolm III invades England and is defeated at the Battle of Alne.

1094 Donald Bane, an anti-English brother of Malcolm III, is King of Alba.

Duncan II, son of Malcolm III, defeated Bane in battle but is in turn defeated in battle by Bane ad his brother, Edward in the Battle of Mondynes.

1097 Edgar, son of Malcolm III and Margaret, ruled Alba until 1107.

1098 Norwegian Magnus Barleg takes control of the western islands from Alba.

1100 Administrative growth in development of the Catholic church in Ireland.

Count Alan Barbe-Torte of Brittany successfully drives Norsemen from Brittany.

Conan of Rennes emerges as a Breton leader.

1107 Alexander I, the older brother of Edgar succeeds to the throne of Alba.

1123c The Cross of Cong was fabricated, it was built to encase what is believed to be an 18 inch by 30 inch piece of the true cross of Christ.

1124 David I another brother of Edgar and a son of Malcolm III became King of Alba. He gives lands of his kingdom to Norman allies and makes Alba Protestant. Amont the Norman families that settled then were: The Bruce family in Annandale, the deMorvilles in Ayrshire and Lauderdale and the family that became known as Steward, Stewart or Stuart in Renfreshire.

1135 Madog ap Maredudd resists the Normans in Wales.

1138 Battle of the Standard, a defeat of David I of Alba, now called Scotland, by the English.

1152 Synod of Kells.

1153 Malcolm IV of Scotland, called the Maiden for his youthful beauty, loses Northumberland and Cumberland to England.

1155 Date of the alleged bull "Laudabiliter" of the English Pope Adrian IV placing Ireland in the hands of the rulers of England. One of the reasons given for this action was that the Pope was disturbed that the Catholic Church in Ireland, a nation known for its fighting ability, never raised an army to go on any of the Crusades.

Ireland was never occupied by Roman soldiers as was England, so that a relationship between England and Rome was closer than that of Ireland and Rome.

1060 Death of Finn MacGorman compiler of the Book of Leinster.

1164 Parts of Dehenbarth, Wales recovered by Rhys ap Gruffyd who is the grandson of Rhys ap Tewdr. To keep the territory he pays tribute to Henry II of England.

A Papal Bull describes the Scottish Catholic Church, which had no Archbishop, as a "special daughter" of the Holy See. Two Archbishoprics in England, Cantebury and York claimed and contested for control of the Scottish church and was the cause of the issuance of the bull.

1165 The King of Scotland, William, the Lion, began what was the longest reign of a Scottish monarch (49 years). He invaded Northumberland and Cumberland in an attempt to recover those lands lost by his brother Malcolm IV.

1166 Expulsion of Dermot MacMurrough for stealing the wife of Tiernan O'Rourke. O'Rourke was an ally of Rory O'Connor of Connacht who was fighting other Irish kings to be the High King. MacMurrough seeks allies on the continent, and he talks with the Normans stationed in Wales. The Normans were vassals of Henry II of England.

Rise of Rory O'Connor, last native King of Ireland.

1169 Norman invasion of Ireland led by Richard FitzGilbert de Clare, Earl of Pembroke. He was known as "Strongbow."

1170 Dublin captured by the Normans. It was defended by Rory O'Connor and the Danes.

1171 Henry II arrives in Ireland and receives the homage of the Normans and of some Irish.

Slavery prohibited by the Irish Catholic Church.

The native Irish rose up and pushed the Normans to occupy only coastal cities.

1172 Pope Alexander III confirms Pope Adrian IV's Bull and grants Ireland to Henry II of England for the purposes of bringing the Irish church into the mainstream of Roman authority.

1174 William, the Lion, King of Scotlandwas defeated and captured in battle against the English of Henry II at the Battle of Alnwick. In the succeeding treaty, The Treaty of Falaise, the independence of Scotland was surrendered to England.

1175 Treaty of Windsor between the English King Henry II and Rory O'Connor, the Irish High King. O'Connor accepts Henry as his ruler and is given Connacht to rule. The Catholic Church accepts Henry as the ruler commissioned by the Pope. Henry leaves Hugh de Lacy in charge of Ireland.

The Normans control all of Ireland except Tyrone, Armagh, Donegal, and Cork where the families of O'Neill, O'Donnell, and McCarthy's respectively would not yield. Rory O'Connor was allowed to rule Connacht.

1177 Henry sets his son, John, up as the ruler of Ireland

1189 The independence of Scotland was re-acknowledged by Richard I of England in the Treaty of Canterbury as he sought allies to keep his throne.

1196 William the Lion led an expedition against Caithness asserting Scottish control over the Norsemen there.

1200 First castles built by the Normans were at Trim and Carrickfergus.

LLewelyn ap Iorweth of Wales, grandson of Owen Gwynedd, restores territory to Gwynedd.

1210 King John of Ireland decrees the laws and customs of England be observed in Ireland. He meant for it to be extended to the native Irish as well but the ruling Normans did not let that happen.

1215 King John signs the Magna Charta at Runnymede, England.

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