1235 Normans invade Connacht, the last remaining kingdom not under English might because Rory O'Connor's son, Cathal, was involved in a revolt. They are led by Richard de Burgo.

As time passed the English felt they could do as they wished, the Irish were an impediment to their taking control. It was generally known that it was no crime to kill an Irishman. One English commander hung Irish men and women from the nearest tree. If there were infants in the Irish family, they were hung by their mother's hair.

The Irish resisted, those families that could not be subdued by might, the English invited to a great banquet to celebrate their truce and the end to the fighting. At the banquet the Irish were poisoned and butchered.

1258 Galloglasses, Celts from the Hebrides with a Viking heritage, are settled in Ulster. The O'Neill's and McCarthy's rebel.

1260 The Battle of Downpatrick and death of Brian O'Neill.

1261 The Battle of Callann where the McCarthy's are victorious.

1263 The Battle of Larg, where Alexander III of Scotland defeated the Norwegians for control of the Hebrides.

1264 Walter de Burgo made Earl of Ulster, he already ruled Connacht.

1266 The MacDonald family control the Western Isles off Scotland (The Hebrides).

1267 The Treaty of Montgomery by which the English granted the title Prince of Wales to the foremost Welsh leader

1270 The Battle of Ath-an-Kip a Norman failure, and an Irish victory.

1278 The Treaty of Abner Conway after the defeat of Llewelyn in Wales.

1282 Edward I of England pushes further into Wales eventually killing Llewelyn.

1283 Gwynedd incorporates Snowdonia and Anglesy, the rest of Wales becomes the private property of the King of England.

1284 The Ordinance of Rhuddian allowing Welsh law to apply to other than criminal cases.

The "Maid of Norway", Margaret the daughter of Alexander III's daughter Margaret and Eric II of Norway, becomes heir to the Scottish throne.

1286 The guardians of Margaret ruled Scotland for five years until she could reign.

1289 Edward I of England proposed his son, Edward, marry the Maid of Norway. This was agreed to in the Treaty of Birgham in 1290, but Margaret died that same year.

1292Edward I of England selects John Balliol to be King of Scotland.

1295 John Balliol, King of Scotland, made a treaty with France with an eye toward war with England.

1296 John Balliol invaded Northumberland and Cumberland; the Battles of Berwick, Dunbar, Edinburgh Castle and Perth all in Scotland represented Edward's answer.

The Ragman's Roll (property owners of Scotland who defered to Edward I of England)

The Earl of Surrey was appointed the Administrator of Scotland

The revolt of William Wallace in Scotland.

1297 The Battle of Stirling Bridge, a Wallace victory led by a Wallace supporter, Andrew Moray and Wallace. The English left Scotland.

Wallace invaded Northumberland and Cumberland.

1297 First meeting of the Irish Parliament.

1298 The Battle of Fallkirk and the defeat of William Wallace.

1300's ConanIV of Brittany gave his daughter, Constance, to be the bride of Henry II of England's son, Geoffry.

1301 Edward I proclaims his son, Edward II, the Prince of Wales. Thus he establishes the precedent whereby English kings proclaimed their sons the Prince of Wales.

1305 Edward completes the subjugation of Scotland by executing Wallace.

1306 Robert Bruce proclaims himself King of Scotland.

1307 The Battle of Loundon Hill where Bruce is victorious over the English.

1314 The Battle of Brannockburn in which Bruce succeeds in pushing the English from Scotland. Bruce then invades England.

1315 Edward Bruce invades Ireland, he is the brother of Robert Bruce, the King of Scotland. After several victories over the English some Irish declare him High King.

Felim O'Connor leads the Irish Confederacy supporting Bruce.

1316 The Battle of Athenry defeats Felim of Connacht's Irish Confederacy supporting Bruce.

1318 Battle of Faughart where Edward Bruce was killed.

1320 Arboath Declaration

1324 Four month raid by the Scots into Northumberland and Cumberland.

1326 A parkiament is formed in Scotland after the English model.

1328 The Treaty of Northhampton whereby the English under Edward II recognized Robert Bruce as an equal king.

Thomas Randolph, First Earl of Moray, controls the Isle of Man. The result of a land grant from Robert Bruce.

1329 David II ascends the Scottish throne. Robert Bruce's heart is taken by Sir James Douglas on a Crusade.

The earldoms of Desmond, and Ormand are created with Normans: Maurice FitzThomas the first Earl of Desmond, and James Butler the first Earl of Ormond.

1330 The invasion of Scot land by Edward Balloil, the brother of John Balloil.

1331 David II is the first Scottish monarch crowned, annointed and coronated with the full rites of the Catholic Church.

The Papal See was willing previously but England prevented it, wanting to keep Scotland from any level approaching its own.

1332 The Battle of Dupplin Moor resulted in a victory for Edward Balliol. He had himself crowned King of Scotland.

The Battle of Annas and the defeat of Edward Balliol.

1333 The last De Burgo, William, Earl of Ulster, was murdered.

Edward Balliol successfully re-invades Scotland with a new army and the support of Edward III of England.

The battle of Halidon Hill where Edward Balliol defeated the Scots and divides Scotland between himself and Edward III.

1337The Dukedom of Cornwall is established for the oldest son of the King of England, making it the oldest dukedom under English rule.

1341 David II was restored as the King of Scotland due to the efforts of the Norman noblemen of Scotland.

1346 The Battle of Neville's Cross in which England defeats David II.

1348 Bubonic plague descends on Ireland.

1356 The "Burnt Candlemas" and defeat of Edward Balliol.

1363 Breton Bertrand du Guescin was Captain General of Normandy. He became a Chamberlain to Charles V of France.

1364 The defeat of Charles Auray

1366 Statutes of Kilkenny passed by the Irish Parliament. These were laws passed to stop the English families from putting on Irish aires, it seems that too many of the English in Ireland were taking on rish habits. The laws outlawed the use of the Gaelic language, Irish culture, music, clothes, games, laws, they even forbid the wearing of moustaches, as this was something the Irish did. Breaking the law was punishable by death!

1368 Bertrand du Guescin was a major leader in France's defeat of Spain.

1371 Robert II (FitzAlan) became the first Stewart (Stuart) to be King of Scotland. He was a nephew of David II.

1372 Owen Glendower of Wales was expected to land in Wales with French allies, but never came.

1377 Richard II became King of England at age 11.

~1380 Turlogh O'Connor assembled the Book of Ballymote.

1384 Richard II of England invades Scotland.

French allies arrive in Scotland to assist in stopping the invasion.

Scotland invades England.

1388 The Battle of Otterburn (Chevy Chase) and the defeat of the English by the Scots.

1390 Robert III ascended the Scottish throne.

Henry II of England invades Scotland.

1394 Richard II visits Ireland, the first English king to visit in two hundred years.

1396 Clan fight in Perth, Scotland.

1399 Richard visits again and while gone from England, Henry IV takes the throne.

Owen Glendower of Llewelyn was proclaimed the Prince of Wales by the English monarch.

1402 Death of the Duke of Rothesay.

1406 James I ascends as King of Scotland, but he was kept a prisoner of the English for the first eighteen years of his reign. His uncle, Robert Stewart, the Duke of Albany, ruled in his place.

1407 Burning of Lollard, James Resby.

1411 The Battle of Harlaw

1412 The University of Saint Andrew is founded.

1416 Gilla-IsaMacFirbis assembled The Book of Lecan.

1425 James I of Scotland landed in Scotland and arrested Murdoc, son of the Duke of Albany, who ruled Scotland when his father died. James I also had Murdocs two sons arrested. All were executed. The family had used the power of the throne to enrich themselves.

1435 Privy Council of Ireland reports to the King it does not rule beyond the Pale which is along the coast centered by Dublin and extending 30 miles long and 20 miles deep into Ireland. The rest of the island was ruled mostly by the Earls of Desmond, Ormand, or Kildare except those areas held by local Irish chieftains.

1437 James I of Scotland was murdered at Perth, Scotland. His son, James II ascends the throne.

James II successfully contested the House of Douglas for control of Scotland.

1449 Richard York is named Viceroy of Ireland.

1450 Bishop Kennedy's College of Saint Salvator is founded in Scotland.

1451 The University of Glasgow was founded by Bishop William Turnbull.

1455 Fall of the Black Douglases in Scotland.

1460 Declaration of Irish parliamentary independence.

1462 The Battle of Pilltown results in the House of Lancaster forces led by Butler being defeated by the House of York forces led by the Earl of Desmond in the War of the Roses. This begins the ascendancy of the Fitzgeralds, Earls of Desmond and Kildare.

1472 Orkney and Sheland Islands officialy annexed by Scotland.

1478 Garrett Mor Fitzgerald, "the Great Earl", rules Ireland until 1513.

1487 Lambert Simnel, a pretender, is recognized by the Yorkist nobles as King Edward VI. Simmel and his army are defeated at Stoke, England. He was made to work as a scullery boy (he was only ten) in the House of Tudor.

1488 James IV of Scotland took control of the Western Isles (The Hebrides) from the MacDonald family.

1491 Seventeen year old Perkin Warbeck another pretender gets verbal support from the Earls of Kildare and Desmond, but no aid.

1492 Columbus discovers America, in his crew is Irishman William Eris, or Ayers of Galway. Galway was one of the last ports Columbus visited before he left for "India." Columbus was said to have had an Irish assistant in his research, named Patrick Maguire, who made the famous journey to America. It has been said that the boats bringing Columbus and some of his crew ran into shallow water the eventful morning of the landing. Patrick Maguire jumped from the boat to lighten the load. He waded ashore and is credited with being the first to set foot upon American soil.

1493 An Irish monk in a Spanish order, Bernardo O'Boyle, was appointed Apostolic Vicar to the Indies.

1494 Meeting of "Poynings' Parliament" is called by the new Lord Deputy, Sir Edward Poynings and resulted in Poynings' Law which ended the "home rule" concept for Ireland, henceforth it was to be ruled from England.

The University of Aberdeen was founded by Bishop William Elphinstone.

1497 Strong support was shown in Cornwall during the Flammock (Flamack) Rebellion is support of Perkin Warbeck.

1503 Marriage of James IV of Scotland to Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII of England.

1504 the Battle of Cnoc Tuagh (Knocktoe).

1509 The Pale now includes Dublin, Louth, Kildare, and part of Meath.

1512 James IV of Scotland sided with France against Henry VIII of England. When Henry VIII invaded France, James IV invaded England.

1513 Gerald called by the Irish Garrett Og Fitzgerald succeeds his father as Earl of Kildare and the ruler of Ireland.

The Battle of Flodden and death of James IV of Scotland. English supremecy over Scotland was unchecked after Flodden.

1532 The Treaty of Vannes in which the Kingdom of Brittany became a part of France.

1534 Thomas Fitzgerald, known as "Silken Thomas", Lord Offaly, son of the Earl of Kildare, rebels against Henry VIII efforts to limit the family's power in Ireland, and to extend his own. In the rebellion Thomas takes the side of the Catholics as Henry was anti-Rome.

Breton Jacques Cartier discovered the Saint Lawrence River, thus begins French Canada.

1536 The "Reformation Parliament" meets Under Lord Deputy Leonard Grey and makes Henry VIII the "only Supreme Head on Earth."

"Silken Thomas" and five of his uncles are executed ending Kildare ascendancy in Ireland.

The Geraldine League is formed to protect the only survivor of the House of Kildare, the descendants of Gerald Fitzgerald. He was a boy of fourteen. The League made up of Irish Norman nobles who moved him among their houses until he was able to be sent to the continent in 1541.

The Pale is extended to the rest of Meath and all of Leinster with the fall of the House of Kildare.

There were small Pales around Kilkenny and Wexford.

Wales was officially made a part of England.

1540 St. Leger, Lord Deputy, wins over the Irish lords to accept Henry VIII.

1541 Irish Parliament proclaims Henry VIII "King of Ireland." Until 1800, whomever was King of England was King of Ireland.

1542 Conn O'Neill created Earl of Tyrone. Other Irish chieftains surrender their claims as Kings and such and receive title and grants for the lands their family traditionally ruled.

The rout of Solway Moss and death of James V of Scotland leading to the acession of Mary I, Queen of Scots.

1543 The treaties of Greenwich between England and Scotland, which among other things called for Mary to marry the heir of Henry VIII, Edward. Mary was able to avoid this.

1544 England invades Scotland.

1545 Another invasion of Scotland by England.

1546 The Archbishop of Saint Andrews, David Cardinal Beaton, a strong supporter of Mary I of Scotland, ordered George Wishart burned for heresy. Wishart was a leader of the Scottish reformation movement of the Catholic Church. His death inspired his followers to stronger action. One of these was John Knox.

1547 Archbishop Beaton is murdered by members of the reformation movement. They were given sanctuary in Saint

Andrews Castle. The castle, like the town, was a stronghold of the reformists. A French expedition on behalf of Mary I took advantage of the inaction of the Scotch and English and strormed the castle. Among those captured in the castle was John Knox who emerged as a spokesman for the reformation movement in Scotland.

The Battle of Pinkie in Scotland, an English victory.

1548 Sir Edward Bellingham, a Puritan and soldier, was Ireland's Lord Deputy. He controlled Connacht, and Munster with the basing of garrisons in each location. Under a false pretext he invaded the lands of the O''Mores in Leix, and

the O'Connors in Offaly to occupy land coveted by the Crown.

Sir Nicholas Bagenal was granted rich lands in Ulster that were seized from their Irish owners.

The English secured the releae of John Knoz and send him to England with the other reformers. They planned to send them back at the "appropriate" time to support the reformation movement in Scotland.

1549 The beginning of "plantations" in Leix and Offaly, an effort to extend the English Pale beyond the area of Dublin.

This program continued through to 1557. The names of two Counties were changed. They were changed from Leix to Queen's County, and from Offaly to King's County.

Humphrey Arundell was supported by the Cornish.

1551 Advisors of the boy King Edward VI influenced him to issue an order calling for the official establishment of Protestantism in Ireland. The Anglican Church was recognized for this purpose and the Catholic Mass was forbidden.

1553 Catholic Mary I is Queen of England, Catholicism and Papal authority are again recognized; but only from her view as she assumed the title of Queen of England without the Pope's sanction. Mary held sway until 1558 when she was deposed.

1557 The rise of the ""Common Band", a movement of relifious reformers to act against the influences of France and

Catholicism in Scotland.

1558 Elizabeth I re-establishes the Anglican church with her ascendancy.

Mary I of Scotland, who had been living in France, marries the French heir. He would later become Francis II, King of France.

1559 Mary of Lorraine, the Queen Mother in France, led a military expedition against the now militarized Scottish reformers.

John Knox returns to Scotland and leads the reformers in protests against Mary of Lorraine.

1560 Listening to John Knox, Elizabeth I of England realized France was moving to consolidate their monarchy over France, Scotland and England. She dispatched 10,000 troops to join the Scottish reformers who were called protestants ("pro-test-tants" which later became Protestants). The english troops fought the French troops in Scotland.

The Treaty of Edinburgh effected a withdrawal of all foreign troops (French and English) from Scotland which left the reformers in control of Scotland. The Scottish Parliament abolished papal authority in Scotland and Andrew Melville challenged the monarchy's control of church funds.

1561 Mary I returns to Scotland from France and contests Knox for control of Scotland.

1562 Shane O'Neill, lord of Tyrone, raises a revolt. He successfully regains most all of Ulster, and the rest of north Ireland down to the River Boyne at Drogheda.

1567 Shane O'Neill defeated and killed by a force led by "Black Hugh" O'Donnell at Farsetmore.

Mary I of Scotland is forced to abdicate, she escapes to England. James Stewart, Earl of Moray, is appointed Regent until James VI could reign.

1568 First Desmond Rebellion lasted until 1572 and was led by Sir James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald, a Catholic Geraldine.

They resisted English authority in Munster. They appealed to the Pope and the King of Spain for assistance. They were defeated but Sir James escaped to Spain.

The Battle of Langside in Scotland.

1570 James Stewart, the Regent of Scotland, is murdered.

1572 John Knox died in Scotland.

1577 Sir Francis Cosby was in charge of the King's forces in King's and Queen's County, but the O'Mores assisted by the O'Kellys, O'Nolans, and Lalors called the areas County Leix and County Offally and held much of the territory still.

Cosby arranged a truce and invited the leading families to a banquet in County Kildare. The banquet was held in a fort, 399 went in, only one man, a Lalor escaped. One hundred and eighty O'Mores were slaughtered along with the supporting families.

One O'More who did not attend the banquet, and was a leader of the Ancient Order of Hibernians, Rory Oge O'More stalked the men of Cosby with guerilla tactics.

1579 The Second Desmond Rebellion again led by Sir James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald, which saw help arrive from the Pope and Spain with the landing of Italian and Spanish troops in Kerry in 1580 to no avail.

The English town of Youghal was sacked and the English slaughtered by the Earl of Desmond's forces. The English Army and forces of Butler, the Earl of Ormond, teamed to put down the uprising. The Papal Army of Italians and Spanish surrendered. There was an incident during this time involving an English man famous for his courtesy and chivalry.

A contingent of the Spanish was able to make it to Golden Island off the Kerry coast. There were 800 Spaniards with plenty of provisions occupying a fort known to be impregnable. With winter approaching and all forceful solutions having failed, the English offered honorable terms by which the Spaniards could extricate themselves from the siege with their lives and honor intact. The Spanish surrendered and laid down their arms, whereupon under the direction of the courteous and chivalrous Sir Walter Raliegh, they were all massacred.

The revolt left parts of Ireland again in the grasp of a famine.

The Elizabethan conquest of Ireland is best described by Richard Berleth in his book, The Twilight of the Gods,

The conquest progressed in stages. In modern parlance,

the pacification of Ireland began with a policing action,

which escalated to full-scale operations, which resulted

in a near depopulation of the countryside, which was

amended by wholesale colonization and usurpation. On

the other hand, Ireland gobbled up the Queen's men,

resources and energy for more than thirty years. The

Irish wars destroyed reputations, bankrupted families,

and culminated in the first authentic colonial venture

in English history.

1580 Viscount Bottlenose leads an unsuccessful revolt in Leinster of Anglo-Irish gentry.

1584 Archbishop Dermot O'Hurley of Armagh is executed.

1585 Composition of Connaught into the English system of ownership.

Perrot's Parliament declared the Munster properties of the House of Desmond forfeit to the Crown. The property is dispersed to English supporters. Sir Walter Raliegh receives 200,000 acres. It is he who introduced the potato and tobacco to Ireland having brought them from his plantation in Virginia.

The rise of the Catholic Constitutional Party begins.

1586 Edward Nugent, an Irishman, stopped Indian raids against the English expedition of Sir Richard Grenville in what is now North Carolina.

An attempt is made to "plantation" Munster, but fails.

1587 Irishmen Darbie Glaven and Dennis Carrell are put ashore at Saint John, Virgin Islands to collect supplies and do not return to their English ship.

Mary I was executed.

1588 Defeat of the Spanish Armada, mostly by the weather and the rocky Irish coast. What they did not kill, the English did. It is estimated that 10,000 Spanish lives were lost between the sea and the English with their Irish cronies.

1592 Trinity College in Dublin is founded, for centuries the only institution of higher learning in Ireland, and open only to members of the Church of Ireland.

1595 Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, raises a rebellion in Ulster. His followers are sometimes called the Northern Confederacy. With him stood Red Hugh O'Donnell. They captured the English fort at Portmore on the Blackwater River.

O'Neill defeated an English force at Clontibret that was commanded by his brother in law Sir Henry Bagenal.

1598 The Battle of Yellow Ford where O'Neill's forces defeated the English led by Bagenal who was killed in the battle. The territories that formerly were held by the Earl of Desmond were restored by the Irish to James FitzThomas Fitzgerald.

It seemed Ireland was on the verge of throwing out the invaders once and for all, but Elizabeth decided to try again with a different tactic.

She hired spies and villains to set the various groups of Irish against one another, a tactic that has always worked. And it did again: the native Irish were set apart from the Anglo Irish, who in turn were divided by the followers of Ormand, Kildare, and Desmond. The Norman Irish were separated from all these. The Ulster Irish were divided between those from Scotland and those born in Ireland. And always the religious issue was used to separate these apart even more, Catholics were separated by group (Irish, Anglo Irish, and Norman), the Protestants were separated into the Anglicans, the Episcopalians, and the Presbyterians. If there were groups inside these classifications such as conservatives and liberals, they too were exploited into separating themselves from the others.

In Brittany, Phillipe Emmanuel Lorraine was defeated in an attempt to revive Breton independence.

1600 The Gowrie conspiracy in Scotland.

1601 The Battle of Kinsale where the Irish rebels and their Spanish allies who landed to assist them are defeated by the English with Irish allies.

1603 Accession of James I in England (Elizabeth I died). The union of the English and Scottish crowns.An historical note - James I of England was James VI of Scotland.

Episcopacy established

Surrender of O'Neill.

1607 The Flight of the Earls. The Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnell and many lesser nobles leave Ulster for Spain. They hope to return with armies to push the English from Ireland.

The Plantation of Ulster is established after the lands of the Earls and others are confiscated and awarded English and Scottish settlers.

Francis Maguire visits Jamestown, Virginia. He later writes a report about it and submits it to the Spanish.

1609 Irishman John Coleman is a member of Henry Hudson's crew on the Half Moon. He is killed in a fight with Indians. The place where he was killed was known as Coleman's Point, but is now known as Sandy Hook in New Jersey.

1613 Chichester's Parliament, when it was learned the Catholics were the majority in the Parliament, 39 new boroughs were created among the Protestant areas to create a Protestant majority.

1618 The Five Articles of Perth in Scotland.

1621 Daniel Gookin, a wealthy Quaker merchant from Dublin, arrives in Virginia and helps to found the town of Newport News. Many believe the town's name derives from Gookin's hometown of Port Newce, County Cork.

1625 Symon Turchin, an Irishman, lands at Jamestown, Virginia. He arrives as Captain of the ship Due Return, when it is learned he is "affected with Popery" his forced by the Governor of Virginia to sail back to England.

1627 Charles I offered "The Graces." These were limited civil rights for Catholics andother inducements in return for a large grant of money from the Catholics. The money was given, the "Graces" were forgotten.

1631 Roger Williams, a native of Wales, emigrates to Massachusetts. He later founds Rhode Island and the city of Providence (1635).

1633 Viscount Thomas Wentworth, later the Earl of Strafford, is appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland. His authoritarian approach to assert the authority of the crown alienate all of Ireand.

1635 John and Cornelius Sullivan, Patrick Norton, and John Kelly are all Irishman in the colony of Virginia.

1636 Fifty six Irish men and women arrived in Barbados from Kinsale, Ireland. They were sold for 500 pounds of tobacco each.

1637 Anthony Brisket, of Wexford, was Governor of Montserrat. He probably more than anyone was responsible for a special Irish connection to Montserrat. For more detail go to >

1638 Episcopy abolished by the General Assembly at Glasgow, Scotland.

First Bishop's War in Scotland.

1639 Alexander Bryan of Armagh settles in Milford, Connecticut.

1640 Michael Bacon, from Dublin, settled on a grant in Woburn, Massachusetts.

1641 Native Irish, under Owen Roe O'Neill who returned from France, raised up in Ulster against the English and Scottish colonists and gain control of most of the province. General Preston of the Anglo Irish Catholics within the Pale led people of similar ilk to battle against the Earl of Ormond, who again fought for the Crown, at New Ross. Preston's group was defeated.

Preston was the nephew of Lord Gormanstown, a Catholic noble of the Pale.

1642 The rebellion grows and a "government" with the support of the Catholic bishops is set up in Kilkenny known as the Confederation of Kilkenny. The confederation declares for Charles I, who is beset with civil war, if he will grant concessions to Catholics.

Darby Field, of whom Massachusetts Governor John Winthrop wrote in his journal that he was an Irishman, is the first European to ascend Mount Washington in the White Mountains of New Hampshire.

1642 The Presbyterian church is officially organized in Ireland.

1643 Negotiations continue through 1646 as Irish, English and Scottish armies maneuver across Ireland, accomplishing nothing.

1644 Daniel Gookin, son of the earlier Virginia settler, moved to Massachusetts where he served on the Governor's Council, and was made a Major General.

1645 Teague, an Irishman, is in Yarmouth, Massachusetts.

John Anderson of Dublin is a resident of Beverwyck, New York.

The Battle of Philihaugh in Scotland.

1646 The Battle of Benburb where Owen Roe O'Neill defeated a Scotch and English army, larger and better equipped.

The "Ormand Peace"

1647 General Preston defeated again, this time trying to take Dublin from Cromwell supporter Michael Jones. 5,000 of Preston's men are killed at Dangan Hill.

1648 The Battle of Preston in Scotland and the defeat of Charles I.

1649 The Earl of Ormond, a Butler, made peace with the Catholic Confederacy when Cromwell had Charles I beheaded.

Ormond, who had assisted Jones in taking Dublin, tried to take it back and was defeated in the Battle of Rathmines.

After the execution of Charles I, the Catholic Confederacy is included in the downfall of Royalists forces for coming to terms with his successor.

Oliver Cromwell comes to Ireland and massacres the Irish at Drogheda and Wexford.

First arrivals of those Irish Cromwell has "transported" to Barbados and later to Montserrat in the British West Indies.

1650 The Battle of Dunbar, Cromwell's forces are victorious in Scotland.

1651 The Battle of Worcester, another Cromwell victory in Scotland.

1652 Cromwellian Settlement Act, wholesale dispossession of Irish from their lands mostly to veterans of Cromwell's army.

Thousand of Irish are transported to the West Indies as laborers. Since Cromwell's arrival the population of Ireland is cut in half from about 1,460,000 to 610,000. This does not include 150,000 Scotch and English in Ireland.

In 1641, Catholics owned about 11,000,000 acres and Protestants about 9,000,000. In 1652, Catholics owned only 2,000,000 acres most all of it in Connacht.

1653 James Butler settled in Massachusetts, at his death in 1681 he was the largest landowner in what became Worcester, Massachusetts.

1657 Thomas Lewis from Belfast lived in New Amsterdam and became a protege of the governor. His son later married the daughter of another governor.

1659 Know doubt you have heard of Zorro, the dashing hero who liked the Spanish ladies and to tweak the nose of Spanish authority in Mexico. The story is based on the life of an Irishman. He was an Irish gentleman of noble birth named William Lamport, born in 1615 in County Wexford. William left Ireland as a result of oppressive English rule. He worked for a while as a privateer, attacking Englishmen merchantmen of Cromwell's Commonwealth. In 1643 he enlisted in one of the three Irish regiments in Spanish service to fight against the French forces in Spanish Flanders. He was commended for bravery and entered Spanish Royal service.Assuming the name "Guillen Lombardo" he went to the Spanish colony of Mexico. Once in Mexico he developed a sympathy for the poor and native Indians. He lived amongst them studying astrology and their healing skills. For this he came to the notice of the Spanish Inquisition, which under the guise of religious "correctness" hunted out enemies of the King of Spain. William became the leader of the fledgling Mexican independence movement. His name occurs time and time again in reports of Inquisitors gathering information by torture of suspected rebels.

William also brought attention to himself with a series of steamy affairs with Spanish noblewomen, both married and unmarried. He became engaged to Antonia Turcious, a member of the nobility, but before he could marry he was arrested by the Inquisition and accused of conspiracy against Spain and its Most Catholic Majesty. He was jailed for 10 years, but escaped from his dungeon and emerged only at night to daub the walls of Mexico City with his name and anti-Spanish graffiti.

William was arrested in 1652 when found in the bed of the wife of the Spanish Viceroy of Mexico, Marquis Lope Diez de Caderyta. He was sentenced to 7 years imprisonment, at the end of which he was turned over to the Inquisition to be burnt at the stake as a heretic. In 1659 He was tied to the stake in Mexico City, but as the bundles of brush and wood were lit, he undid the ropes that bound him and strangled himself before the flames could reach him.

1660 Restoration of the English monarchy with the ascendancy of Charles II.

1662 Kinsale, Virginia founded by Irish settlers from Cork.

1663 The beginning of a series of economic acts from England aimed at subordinating the Irish economy to England's.

1666 An Irish revolt on Saint Christopher Island in the British West Indies; Montserrat, too, had problems with the Irish population that were mostly domestics on English estates.

The Pentland Risings in Scotland

1669 Irish born Michael Kelly is given the responsibility of defending Rhode Island.

1670 Charleston, South Carolina is settled and used as a base to settle South Carolina. Irish immigrants play a large part. One of the ships bringing the immigrants was that of Captain Florence O'Sullivan. O'Sullivan's ship arrived on Saint Patrick's Day. Among his passengers was Michael Moran who came as an indentured servant, and later was a member of the Parliament of South Carolina. O'Sullivan was named Surveyor-General of the new province and commander of the militia.

Sullivan's Island in Charleston harbor is named for him.

1670 The Navigation Act was passed in England and excluded Ireland.

1671 Irishman William Stapleton was Governor of the Leeward Islands, which included: Saint Christopher, Nevis, Antigua, and Montserrat islands.

1672 Robert Pollock of Donegal and his wife from Derry arrive in Maryland. Their son, William, changed the name to Polk. He was the great-grandfather of President James K. Polk.

1677 Charles McCarthy of Cork, and 48 fellow emigrants founded East Greenwich, Rhode Island.

1678 About 100 Irish families sailed from Barbados to Virginia and the Carolinas.

1679 The Battle of Drumclog and of Bothwell Bridge in Scotland where the "Protestors", "Conventors" or "Camcronians" of Richard Cameron were defeated.

1680 George Talbot, an Irishman, received a grant in Maryland which he named New Ireland, he subdivided the area into estates he called; New Munster, New Leinster, and New Connaught. The estates were settled by Irish immigrants.

The Sanquhar Declaration in Scotland where Richard Cameron declared Charles II deposed.

1681 Archbishop Oliver Plunkett of Armagh was executed.
Enactment of the Test Act.

William Penn was accompanied by an Irish couple on his first visit to Pennsylvania. Dennis and Mary Rochford of Wexford, Ireland stayed. Dennis was named a member of he Pennsylvania Assembly in 1683.

Welsh Quakers arrive in Pennsylvania.

1683 Reverend Francis Makemie of Donegal arrived in Virginia and organizes Presbyterianism in America.

Arminian Baptists from Radnoshire, Wales arrive in Philadelphia.

Thomas Dongan, who was born in Kildare in 1634, is Governor of New York. Previously he served as Lieutenant

Governor of Tangiers. His administration was noted for; religious tolerance, the first representative assembly in

the upper colonies, a charter of rights, and trial by jury. Dongan served as New York's Governor until 1688. He chartered the cities of New York and Albany.

1684 Richard Kryle, an Irishman, was named Governor of South Carolina. Many Irish settled there during his term of office.

1685 James Moore was appointed as Acting Governor of Carolina, he also served as Chief Justice, and as Attorney General.

French Huguenots began to arrive in Ireland. This influx of Huguenots seeking a refuge in Ireland continued until 1705.

1687 James II became the Catholic King of England.He was James VII of Scotland.

Richard Talbot, Earl of Tyrconnell, was named Lord Deputy of Ireland. Talbot was one of the few survivors of Drogheda and an Irish Catholic.

Catholics are restored property and rights.

Three Letters of Indulgence (Scotland).

1688 Revolution in England to throw out the Catholic king.

In Massachusetts, Catholic Anne "Goody" Glover of Ireland who speaks Gaelic, and prayed in Latin is hanged as a witch for speaking in foreign tongues and making signs, such as the Sign of The Cross. She was one of the Irish slaves that escaped Barbados.

The first piano crafted in the United States was built by Irishman Benjamin Crehore in Milton, Massachusetts.

Charles Carroll was named Attorney General of Maryland. He was the grandfather of Charles Carroll, signer of the United States of America's Declaration of Independence.

1689 James II arrives in Ireland and results in the siege of Derry which holds out for the arrival of William of Orange.

James II summons a Parliament in Dublin, the "Patriot Parliament."

The Williamite forces, led by William of Orange, made up of Danes, Dutch, French Hugenots, and English soldiers arrive to give James II battle.

The Battle of the Boyne is fought at the Boyne River where William of Orange defeats the Jacobite forces of James II.

James leaves for France and the Irish continued the fight.

The Battle of Killiecrankie and of Dunkeld in Scotland where the Williamites were vistorious over the Jacobites.

1689 One hundred thirty Irish servants rebelled and controlled Montserrat for King James.

1690 Irish trade with Newfoundland is firmly established. Many Irish men and women went to Newfoundland to work as servants. This begins an entry by the Irish to North America that broadens each year. Many Irish sail to Canada,

because it was cheaper than sailing to the American Colony ports, and land either in the Maritime Provinces (Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Labrador, Nova Scotia or Prince Edward Island), Quebec City or Montreal, Quebec and then walk to the United States.

Presbyterianism was re-established in Scotland.

1691 Patrick Sarsfield held the land west of the Shannon, after the Williamites won the Battle of the Boyne, they were able to move against Sarsfield.

The Williamite forces defeated the Jacobites at the Battle of Aughrim, the surviving Jacobites under Sarsfield held out in the siege of Limerick.

The Treaty of Limerick whereby Jacobite forces were allowed free passage to France. The Irish who stayed were promised security in property, civil and religious rights. The departure of Sarsfield's Irish Army for France is known as the flight of the "Wild Geese."

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