A SHORT DIGRESSION ON THE TOPIC OF:
THE WILD GEESE
The fourteen thousand armed men of Ireland watched as Patrick Sarsfield signed the Treaty of Limerick, witnessed by the Chief Justice of England (a prerequisite of the treaty made by Sarsfield). The Irish Army was then organized by units and paraded to a place where they were to turn to the English or French standard. Only 1,046 members of the Irish Army marched to the English banner and elected to stay.
Ninety three percent marched to the French Standard.
A few days later, a French fleet came up the Shannon with money, men and material to continue the fight, but Sarsfield felt bound by the terms of the Treaty of Limerick. Sarsfield spoke to his men: "Ireland's and our honor is pledged. Though 100,000 Frenchmen offered to us aid now, we must keep our word." The French took these honorable Irishmen to France. As to the origin of the term "Wild Geese", see the Prologue in The Celtic Connection.
Within a year of the signing of the Treaty of Limerick, the English repudiated the terms of the treaty, they began to pass laws discriminating against the Irish, especially the Catholic Irish. Before long the Irish were forbidden to:
> Receive an education
> Enter a profession
> Hold public office
> Engage in trade or commerce
> Enlist in the army or navy
> Live in a corporate town, or within five miles of one
> Own a horse of more than five hands (a pony)
> Purchase land
> Lease land
> Own a gun, neither pistol or rifle
> Be a guardian of a child
> Receive anything from a Protestant
> Exercise the Catholic religion
The Irish were compelled to attend Anglican services and to pay a tithe to that church. This grated both the Catholics of the south and the Presbyterians of the northeast. The Catholics were the worse off. An English Supreme Court Justice of the time stated, "The law does not suppose any such person to exist as an Irish Roman Catholic". The Presbyterians while not treated as non-persons, were abused by the English. The lands of Ulster on which the English planted the Scotch farmers, who were almost all Presbyterians, more than 200 years earlier, were now considered English rent property and the farmers whose families had worked the farms for two hundred years, mere tenants. Rents were raised only a short time after they were posted for the first time. If the farms were considerably improved by these Presbyterian Irish the rent was higher.
This situation among the Catholic and Presbyterian Irish triggered a round of emigration from English control. Thousands fled Ireland. Many of these immigrants went to the new colonies in the Americas. They found the English administration in the Americas only slightly less discriminatory than in Ireland. Hearing of this many of the Catholic Irish chose to follow the Wild Geese to France, or to other Catholic countries on the continent. There they hoped to grow in number and military experience and one day come back to Ireland to wrench it from the grasp of the English. Many of these men found a home in the French service, in the Irish Brigade that was formed because so many Irish military men were in France.
From 1691 to 1792, close to one million Irishmen died for France. At one time the Irish Brigade of France had six complete regiments. Many of the Irish who served France, served with honor.
In the Battle of Fontenoy, in May of 1745, the Irish Brigade carried the day for the French, and brought victory from near defeat. When all the French forces about them were ready to capitulate, the Irish Brigade charged the combined English and Dutch forces and secured a victory. One of the Irish soldiers at Fontenoy was Richard Hennessey of County Cork. He later settled in Cognac, France and founded the famous Hennessey distillery there.
It was a MacMahon of Ireland that led Irish troops for France in a critical action that brought about the fall of Sevastopol.
Thomas Conway, of the Conway Cabal, was an Irishman in the service of the French Irish Brigade. He took leave to fight in the American Revolution on the side of the United States. After the American Revolution, he returned to France and became the Governor General of French India.
Thomas Arthur Lally was an Irishman in the French service. He was sent as a Lieutenant Governor to India in 1756. He was made Commander in Chief of all French forces.
Theobold Wolfe Tone's brother, William, was an advisor to the Nizam of Hyderbad.
George Thomas was a Rajah of India, he was from Tipperary.
One of the Irish generals that took part in the French Revolution was General James O'Moran.
Jacques MacDonald was a Marshall of France under Napoleon Bonaparte.
Other Irish in the service of France rose through the ranks to distinction to claim such titles as: Governor of Oran, Governor of Tobago, Governor General of Algiers. General Edmund P. MacMahon, who led the Irish charge at Sevastopol, became in turn:
a Marshall of France, Duke of Magenta, and in 1873-1879, he was President of France!
Earlier, in 1848, an Irishman named Kavanaugh received over one and a half million votes to be President of France.
A large portion of the French speaking population of Quebec have Irish origins going back to the period when the Irish Brigade was stationed there beginning in 1690. Church records show at the close of the Seventeenth Century, there were over 100 Irish families in what was called Lower Canada.
The Plains of Abraham upon which the Battle of Quebec during the French and Indian War was fought, and which claimed the life of both the French and English generals (Montcalm and Wolfe), was owned by an Irish sailor by the name of Abraham Martin, and thus its name. A MacCarthy commanded Fort de Chartres for the French during that war. A year after the fall of Montreal, he would not give it up to the English. He did so only on the expressed orders of the King of France.
Arthur Dillon, a commander of the French Irish Regiment which participated in the American Revolution, married a woman who was a lady in waiting to Marie Antionette.
For information on the Irish Legion of Napoleon use this link >
Not all the dissident Irish went into the French service, many went to fight for Spain. There were three Irish regiments in the Spanish Army. The first was established sometime around 1610, and spent 20 years fighting for Spain in the Belgium and Netherlands area.
Church records in Catalonia, Spain revealed Irish were there in numbers as early as 1655.
In 1698, Captain Juan Jordan, an Irishman in the service of Spain, captured Florida.
Texas and Louisiana each had a Spanish Governor; Texas was governed by Hugh O' Connor in 1767 and Louisiana by Alexander O'Reilly in 1769. O'Connor later was Governor of the Yucatán. O'Connor was the first Commandante Inspector of the Interior Provinces with authority over all Governors from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific Ocean. O'Reilly became Governor of Cuba and still later Commander in Chief of the Spanish Army. O'Reilly personally saved the life of the King of Spain. He was a close personal friend of Viceroy Bucareli of New Spain.
Juan O'Donoju, John O'Donoghue, was a Minister of War in Spain, the last Viceroy of Nueva España, and a Regent of Mexico.
Red haired, green eyed and freckled Peter Martin, an Irishman, together with John Brown of Waterford lived in Mexico in 1575. They were on John Hawkin's flagship in 1567-'68 when it was captured by a Spanish ship. They were taken to Mexico.
Conde de Lacy the Spanish Ambassador to Russia, strongly advised the King of Spain to take California before the Russians did. The King listened and did.
The second governor of California under Spain was Irishman Felipe de Barry. He served as Governor in 1771.
An Irishman named Lawless was Governor of Majorca.
An Irish regiment of Spain was sent to Brazil in 1779.
The son of Henry James O'Donnell a Finance Minister of Spain was, in 1809, the President of the Spanish Cabinet. He authored the Moret Law of Spain abolishing slavery in Cuba and Puerto Rico.
General G. O'Farrill was, in 1808, the Spanish War Minister and a member of the ruling junta of Spain.
Fernando Moran was the Spanish ambassador to the United Nations, and then Spain's Foreign Minister.
Thomas Shelly, an Irishman in Spanish service, worked his way up to the rank of General and was later appointed Governor of the Spanish province of Leon.
Don Guillermo Murphy was the Private Secretary to King Alphonso XII of Spain.
Don Ricardo Wall was the Spanish Prime Minister 1754-1767.
Another Irishman to be Prime Minister of Spain was Juan Prim in 1870. Prim was also the President of the Council of Ministers, and later Premier. He was also said to be a kingmaker.
Leopoldo O'Donnell captured Morocco for Spain. He became the Duke of Tetuan, and later in 1856 until 1866, he was the Premier of Spain.
In 1812, Enrique O'Donnell was the Regent of Spain, He proclaimed Spain's first Constitution.
Genoa, Italy to this day has institutions echoing the name of the Ultonia Irish regiment that heroically protected it from Napoleon during a siege in 1808-'09. The regiment's flag is on display in the city.
AUSTRIA, RUSSIA, BAVARIA and POLAND
Still other countries were recipients of the Wild Geese, and as in France and Spain, they grew to levels of distinction impossible for the Irish to attain in Ireland. Fourteen Irishmen attained the rank of Marshall in the Austrian Army.
They had names like Plunkett, Maguire, Nugent, and O'Donnell. Nicholas Taafe was one of these. He later served as
Chamberlain to Emperor Charles VI in 1769.
Count Edward Taafe was the Provincial Governor of Saltzburg in 1863-1867, and then of Tyrol and Voraberg 1874-1879.
In 1879, he was President of the Austrian Council of Ministers.
A father and son team of Walshs commanded the Austrian Army in Turkey.
Thomas Baron Von Brady, a Cavan man, entered the Austrian service at the age of 17; in 1769, he rose to become the Governor of Dalmatia and Albania.
Count James Nugent, of Dublin, was the Austrian ambassador to Berlin in 1764.
Joseph O'Donnell was the Austrian Governor of Siebenburgen in 1768.
John Forbes founded the Austrian Navy in 1720.
Maximillian Ulysses von Browne was Commanding General of Bohemia in 1751, and Commandant of Prague in 1754.
James MacDonald of County Mayo, became an Austrian Count and later a Chamberlain. His son, Francis, succeeded him.
A Fitzjames also once held the post of Chamberlain in Austria.
Major General Baron Francis Patrick O'Neillan, born in Dysert, County Clare served in the Austrian army of Maria Theresa.
He was the Commander of the citadel at Mantua 1733-1734. His sons, Eugene and Francis both were Counts under Maria Theresa. Francis died in the Battle of Hirschwald while demolishing the city gate with an ax.
General O'Neillan's wife, Barbara was the sister of Maximillian Ulysses Browne cited above.
In Russia, Irishman Peter Lacy commanded 15,000 men. His father fought for Austria as a Field Marshall and his two brothers were in the Irish Brigade of France. Peter Lacy was later Governor of Livonia (1743).
A Browne in Russian service was Governor of Riga.
An Irishman named David Butler is credited with establishing the Russian Navy.
Peter Delap, an Irishman, was Commander of the Russian Navy under Peter the Great. In 1719, when Czar Peter wanted to invade Sweden he sent Delap to transport Lacy's troops to Sweden. When they landed in Sweden they were repulsed by an Irish general in the service of Sweden named Hugh Hamilton.
Sidney Reilly was a part of Lenin's revolution in Russia in 1917.
A Chamberlain of Poland was Marshall Maurice Kavanaugh, a Chamberlain of Bavaria was a Colonel Harold of Ireland.
The English too have had a healthy share of Irish in their service. In the British Army there were several Irish Brigades; the Leinster Regiment, the Royal Munster Fusiliers, the Royal Irish Regiment, and the Connaught Rangers to name a few. They were all disbanded in 1920 after the Connaught Rangers on duty in far away India, rebelled at the news from home (Ireland) of what the Black and Tan, an English unit quickly formed using a mixed uniform, was doing in Ireland. The Black and Tans acted brutally against the people, even murdered the Mayor of Cork, Tomas MacCurtain. When the Irish units were disbanded in 1920, they had more decorations for bravery than all the other comparable units in the British Army.
Among the more famous Irish in the military service of England were:
Sir Arthur Wellesley, better known as the Duke of Wellington, he was born of English parents in Ireland. He defeated Napoleon at Waterloo, and was later a Prime Minister of England (1828). Wellington once said in a speech delivered in 1829:
It is mainly to our Irish Catholics that we owe our proud pre-eminence in our military career...I feel almost ashamed of the honors which have been lavished on me. I feel that the merit was theirs, what was so freely given to me was unjustly denied to them."
A General Kavanaugh, who was Irish, commanded Queen Victoria's Army in India.
Sir Bernard Law Montgomery, the WW II English Field Marshal who led the fight at El Alamein, North Africa, and then Sicily was Irish. He came from Ulster.
The Irish and other Celts also contributed to the government service of England.
Lord Palmerston the Prime Minister was Anglo-Irish.
Lord Aberdeen, also a Prime Minister, was born in Scotland.
James Ramsey MacDonald was the first Labour Party Prime Minister (1924).
Harold McMillan was Prime Minister 1957-1963, he was of Scottish ancestry.
As the British empire stretched around the world, we find Irish in high places in all the far flung places. Examples are:
Turkey - Sir Arthur Henry MacMahon was High Commander in 1914-1916.
Egypt - Horatio Herbert Kitchner, who was born in Kerry, was Commander of British forces in Egypt, earlier he attempted to rescue Gordon in the Sudan. Later Kitchner was Governor of Suakin in Zanzibar. Kitchner was an important recruiter of men for WW I.
Hong Kong - For twenty years the men in charge of Hong Kong had names like MacDonnell, Kennedy, and Hennessy.
One of the better place names in Hong Kong is Connaught Way.
India - In 1756 the Commander in Chief of British Forces in India was Irishman Eyre Coote. The first Viceroy of India was Irishman Charles J. Canning, another Irish Viceroy was Richard Bourke.
In 1918, Michael O'Dwyer ruled Punjab.
Natal - The Governor of Natal in 1901 was Sir Henry McCallum.
Burma - The Commanders in Chief of Burma from 1889 - 1892 were Anthony Patrick MacDonnell and Alex MacKenzie respectively.
Malta - John Vereker Gord was an Irishman and Governor.
Palestine - John Vereker Gord was High Commissioner.
Gibraltar - John Vereker Gord was Governor.
South Africa - John McBride led an Irish unit in the British Army in the Boer War.
Arctic Area - Francis L. McClintock and Robert J. McClure were early Arctic explorers.
Australia - Australia had many Irish leaders. Peter Lalor was at the Eureka Stockade fight at Ballarat, he later became Postmaster General, then Speaker of the House, 1880-1888. Governor General and Prime Minister. William McMahon was an Irishman. Other Irish include Stanley Melbourne Bruce, Joseph Benedict Chifley, John Curtin, Francis Forde, Joseph Lyons, Robert Menzes, John McEwen and Paul Keating. In addition other Celtic connections would include Andrew Fisher whose father was born in Scotland, John Malcom Frase of Scottish descent, Robert James Lee Hawke of Cornish descent, William Morris Hughes of Welsh descent and George Houstoun Reid of Scottish descent.
New Zealand - The first Premier, John Edmond Fitzgerald was born in Ireland. William Ferguson Massey and John Ballance were both Prime Ministers who were of an Irish heritage.
In 1984, Robert Muldoon was Prime Minister.
Iraq - The Provost Marshal of Bagdad, in 1916, was Victor McLaglen.
Sierra Leone - Thomas Babington Macauley, father of the writer Zachary Macauley was Governor in 1813.
Saudia Arabia - T. E. Lawrence, Lawrence of Arabia, was born in Ireland. He secured independence for this area.
Bermuda - Francis Hincks was Governor.
Bahamas - Milo Butler was Governor in 1973.
Grenada - George Macartney was Governor in 1779.
Montserrat- Alexander Brisket was Governor in 1637.
Leeward Islands - Irish born William Stapleton was Governor in 1671. He was an Irish Catholic Soldier of Fortune previous to his appointment.
Canada - Like Australia, there have been many. The current Prime Minister Brian Mulroney is representative, he is from Quebec. Another is Edmund James Flynn in 1896. MacDonalds, MacKenzies, and Kings have been in high office though out Canada, throughout the years. Examples are the first Premier of Ontario, John Sandfield Macdonald. He was also Prime Minister of Canada 1862-1864. Sir John Alexander MacDonald was the first Premier of Canada (1867-1873).
William Lyon MacKenzie led a rebellion to rid Canada of the British in 1837.
Andrew L. McNaughton was Commander of Canadian Forces in Great Britain in WW II.
There are other Irish who left home to adopt other countries and become a part of their history. Examples are:
Philippines - The Governor General of the Philippines for the United States from 1933-1937 was Frank Murphy.
Israel - The President of Israel since 1983, Chiam Herzog, was born in Ireland.
Germany - Leader of the Green Party is appropriately Petra Kelly. She is not Irish, but carries the name of her step-father.
Zimbabwe - Robert Mugabe, the country's first Prime Minister is not Irish, but credits an Irish priest, Father John O'Hara, for his revolutionary zeal that helped him declare his country independent.
Japan - Douglas MacArthur, who had both Irish and Scottish blood, effectively ruled Japan and wrote its constitution after WWII.
Greece - Richard Strong was a Commanding General of the Greek Army when Greece successfully separated from Turkey.
Cuba - Che Gueverra, was one of the leader's of the Cuban Revolution, he is descended from a Lynch family of Galway.
Dublin born Dr. Richard Robert Madden played an important part in ending slavery in Cuba and indirectly assisting the move for independence that followed.
Africa - Hugh Francis Flynn rode with Shaka the Zulu chief in 1827.
Vatican - Pope Pius IX organized the Irish Battalion of Saint Patrick to defend the Papal States against Girabaldi in the early 1800s. Later, the unit was led by Major Myles O'Reilly of County Dublin. Among his many officers were John Joseph Coppinger and Miles Keogh. Cork born Coppinger left the Papal Army to join the American Union Army. He served in the American Civil War, fighting Indians in the West and the Spanish American War attaining the rank of Major General over 46 years.
Lieutenant Miles Keogh of County Carlow was awarded a Papal medal for his valor serving with the Papal Army. He too left the Papal Army for the U. S. Union Army. After the Civil War, Keogh was killed as a member of the Seventh Cavalry serving as an officer under General George Armstrong Custer.
Keogh's horse, Comanche, was the only U.S. Army survivor of Custer's Last Stand which was fought on 25 June 1876. When reinforcements arrived after the battle, they found Comanche wounded but alive. Comanche became a regimental mascot and living legend, trotted out for parades and other public occasions. After his death he was stuffed and put on display at the natural history museum at the University of Kansas.
Miles Keogh was found with his personal staff around him in what was obviously a last stand of their own. Many Indians were killed there and for years after... there were reports of the Sioux speaking of the valor of the Irishman. His was the only body on the field that was not mutilated.
When the victor of the Battle of the Little Big Horn, Sitting Bull, died, they found he was wearing Keogh's medal.
Monsignor Hugh O'Flaherty helped conceal thousands of escaped Allied POWs during WWII.
Father John Magee was the Private Secretary to Pope John Paul in 1978.
SOUTH and LATIN AMERICA
In South America many Irish were associated with Simon Bolivar who liberated Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru from Spain during the years 1810-1826. His chief Aide de Camp was General Daniel Florence O'Leary who later became Foreign Minister for first Columbia and then Venezuela. General Thomas Charles James Wright was an Irishman who became an official in Columbia, then Ecuador, and finally Venezuela. Arthur O'Connor was Chief of Staff to Jose San Martin.
John D'Evereaux raised the Irish Legion for Bolivar. About 2,000 Irish served in the Unit.
The Spanish Viceroy to Peru was Ambrose O'Higgins. His son, Bernado O'Higgins, like Bolivar helped to free parts of South America with Irish help. A province of Chile is named O'Higgins.
Thomas Cochrane organized the Chilean Navy for O'Higgins.
William Brown, of Ireland, organized the Argentine Navy, he was later Governor of Buenos Aires.
Eduardo Casey was the son of 19th Century Irish immigrants. He became the founding father of the present-day city of Venado Tuerto, in Argentina's Santa Fe Province.
Eiza Lynch was born in Cork, Ireland in 1835. Her family moved to France in 1847. She was forever impressed with French Culture. When she was 21 she met General Francisco Solano Lopez, the heir of Paraguay's leadership. She became pregnant by him and followed him to Paraguay. Though Lopez never married her, Lynch learned to take political and financial advantage of her status, despite the unofficial nature of her position and antipathy on the part of López family. By 1858 she was a social leader in the community, despite frequently becoming pregnant and being not fully accepted by the Paraguayan elite. Between 1855 and 1861 she gave birth to five more sons, all of whom publicly bore the López name. She rose high in the world in a material sense, recipient of gift after gift from her admiring general. She styled herself as "Madame Lynch" and was popularly known as "La Lynch". She became a lady to be emulated. Her social reputation placed her on an equal footing with some foreign diplomats. She did her part to modernise Paraguay. Thus began a cultural transfer of French, rather than English or Irish, customs to replace the native ones. She set the tone with her home and her lover's house, as well as clothing, cuisine, champagne, cosmetics, sewing machines, de rigeur music, formal dances, lithographs and other objects d'art.
She became the world's largest female landowner. By 1865 she owned several large ranches and at least twenty-six urban properties. During Paraguay's Triple Alliance War against Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay, Solano López transferred vast properties into Lynch's name perhaps in order to protect some of his wealth in case he lost the war or had to abdicate. Solano López ordered the sale to Eliza Lynch of over 800,000 acres of state lands and forests located in the Chaco region. In addition, she acquired 12,000,000 acres in eastern Paraguay and another 9,000,000 acres
of yerbales and forests in the contested area north of the river Apa. All of Lynch's landed property was confiscated in 1869 by the Triple Alliance. For the results of the Triple Alliance War go to this link >
Madam Lynch was allowed to return to Paris with $500,00 in assets where she died in obscurity in 1886.
For an expanded description of Eliza Lynch and photographs go to this link >
In the 1970s, under the influence of nationalist and revisionist historians, Eliza Lynch was proclaimed a Paraguayan national heroine and her remains were removed from her grave in Paris to her adopted country in Asuncion, Paraguay, South America. A central street in Asunción was named 'Madame Lynch' in her honour. The life of Eliza Lynch has fascinated modern writers of fiction and biography in English and Spanish.
Peter (Pedro) Campbell was a Tipperary born soldier who arrived in Argentina as a member of a British invasion force. He deserted to join Jose Artigas' army fighting for the liberation of what was to become Uruguay, and is honored as the father of that nation's Navy.
Just prior to the ascendancy of Juan Peron, the President of Argentina in 1944-1946 was Admirilo J. Farrell.
The President of Peru in 1983 was named Terry. He offered a Peace Plan to end the Malvinas/Falkland dispute of that year to the leaders of England and Argentina that was accepted. Two of the other major players in that drama was the Foreign Minister of England, a man named Callahan; and the President of the United States, who was a Reagan.
In Mexico during the war with the United States in 1846 there was in its army a battalion known as the San Patricio's, made up of many Irishmen.
The Republic of Texas had as its first President, Sam Houston of an Irish family.
There were three Irish Brigades in South Africa during the Boer War.
Irish born "Mad" Mike Hoare of South Africa, a derring do mercenary who led a band called the "Wild Geese" in the Katanga revolt in the Belgian Congo of the 1960's, attempted in 1981 to take over the Seychelles Islands.
Her Serene Highness Princess Grace Kelly of Monaco, was an Irish girl from Philadelphia who went to Hollywood and became a star, before marrying the Prince of Monaco Her children Prince Albert, Princess Caroline (who has a carnation named for her), and Princess Stephanie, are of course as Irish as Monacoan.
And then there was His Majesty O'Keefe, who ruled Yap Island in the South Pacific as his personal kingdom for thirty years (1871-1901).
There was another less known King whose reign was not as long. He was Irishman John Davis Murray, King of the Christmas Islands in 1891.
THE UNITED STATES of AMERICA
There is not enough room to give the many examples of men and women with an Irish heritage who played a part in the history of the United States of America. See the Celtic Chronology in the Appendices for some information. Suffice to say they include twelve U.S. presidents who were Irish on the paternal side: President Buchanan's father was born in County Donegal and both President Jackson's parents were born there, Polk, Arthur, McKinley, Wilson, Kennedy, Nixon, Ford, Carter, Reagan and Clinton; and nine United States presidents: Adams, his son John Quincy; Madison; Johnson (Andrew); Grant; Cleveland; Harrison; Teddy Roosevelt, Lyndon Johnson and Barack Obama who were Irish on the maternal side. Barack Obama, whose mother was white, had a great-great-great grandfather from County Offaly. In addition President Clinton's mother 's family traces their roots to County Fermanagh, Ireland. Twenty-three U. S. Presidents had an Irish connection. The Presidents George Bush are related to the Irish Shannons.
Expanding that to include other Celtic connectons, we can add Jefferson who was of Welsh descent, and Monroe and Hayes of Scottish descent. President Garfield stated he believed he was of Welsh descent. Genealogical records show him to be of Scottish descent. That brings the total number of U. S. Presidents with a Celtic connection to twenty four. More than half of the U. S. Presidents had a Celtic connection. Two other presidents who may have had a Celtic connection were George Washington and Zachary Taylor. George Washington had very close ties to a McCarthy family (cousins). George Washington is descended in the paternal line from families in the west of England (North Lancashire), Celtic country. Taylor is another President whose ancestors are from the west of England in country that still has many Celtic families. Many historians list Lincoln as Irish through his maternal line (Moore). President McKinley in a St. Patrick' Day speech included Lincoln in his list. My research has not been able to substantiate that claim.
Like the seeds of the shamrock, Ireland has scattered its sons and daughters to the four winds, and everywhere they have taken root they've made a unique contribution to their adopted country.
The point of this digression is to show you the Irish left Ireland and gave some of their best work on behalf of freedom to countries other than Ireland. The legacy of the Wild Geese has been felt world over. Let us return now to the chronology and you will see why they left.
Celtic Chronology next section 1692 - 1800 >
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