1800 The Union Act is passed by both Parliaments joining the two countries making Ireland a "region" of the English Crown.

1801 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland is formalized and considered done.

Thomas Jefferson of Welsh descent is elected President of the United States by one vote over Aaron Burr in the House of Representatives, where the decision was to be made because each had the same electoral votes. The original election was between Jefferson and Adams with Burr as Jefferson's Vice President.

This election caused the method to be changed.

James Madison whose mother was Eleanor Rose Conway was Jefferson's Secretary of State.

Irishman Robert Smith was made Secretary of the Navy, his father was born in Strabane.

1802 John Smilie of County Down introduced the bill in the U.S. Congress to repeal the Alien and Sedition Laws. The bill quickly passes. He was succeeded as the United States Senator from South Carolina by John C. Calhoun.

In Jefferson's second term of office his Vice President is Irishman George Clinton of New York.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who unified the Punjab, is taken with a dancer named Moran, marries her and makes her a Queen of Punjab. For more details follow this link >

1803 The United Irish Society rises briefly in Dublin, its leader Robert Emmet is caught and executed.

Robert Emmet's brother, Thomas Addis Emmet one of the leaders of the United Irishmen arrived in America, he became Attorney General of New York in 1812.

Robert Fulton, of Irish parents, launches the first boat propelled by steam.

The Louisiana Purchase, It is important to note that Americans felt Texas was in the original Louisiana Purchase.

1804 The Lewis and Clark Expedition led by Celts Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explored the territory beyond the Mississippi. William Clark was George Rogers Clark's brother. The expedition was financed to a large degree by Oliver Pollack.

The rest was funded by the United States government through Irishman and Secretary of the Treasury, Albert Gallatin.

The Essex Junto, a term that refers to a group representing the New England states that wanted to secede from the Union. A party to the plan and group was the British Minister to the United States, Merry, who promised financial and military assistance.

1805 The Barbary pirates are given what they deserve by Thomas McDonough and Stephen Decatur, whose mother was Irish, when Tripoli (where Libyia is now) was leveled for demanding tribute from the Americans.

For 200 years the pirates of the Barbary Coast, an area made up of Tripoli, Algiers, Tunis, and Morocco charged nations a tribute to leave their shipping alone. Those who did not comply had their ships attacked. The personnel on board were then held ransom with standard fees set. A cabin boy's ransom was $1,400, while a passenger's was $4,000.

When Jefferson became President, he learned that the rates for the tribute and ransoms were increased. He also discovered the United States had paid more than $2,000,000.00 in tribute to these pirates. A cry went up in the country, "thousands for defense but not one penny for tribute." The sea attack was coordinated with a land attack on the leader of the Barbary pirates at Derna, Tripoli. Lieutenant N. O'Bannon of the United States Marine Corps led the charge of an assault force which had crossed 500 miles of desert to get to Derna. O'Bannon's actions were successful. O'Bannon raised the United States flag over conquered foreign soil for the first time ever. The new ruler of Tripoli presented O'Bannon with a jeweled sword, the Sword of Mameluke, which is the model of the sword carried by United States Marines today.

1806 Harmon Blennerhassett an emigrant from County Kerry was implicated in the Aaron Burr conspiracy. He was arrested with Burr, but never brought to trial. It was from his island estate Burr's "army" was to launch its attack. Blennerhassett, a wealthy man, funded much of the supplies and equipment. Besides Blennerhasset's money and future, Burr also took his attractive wife.

1807 James Sullivan was elected Governor of Massachusetts. He was the son of Limerick born John Sullivan. His brother was Major General Sullivan who gained fame as the conqueror of the Iroquois. James Sullivan later wrote a history of Maine.

Robert Fulton takes the first steamboat, the Clermont, in America up the Hudson River.

Sir Robert McClure, of Wexford, discovered the North West Passage in the artic.

Alexander Campbell, whose father Thomas was from Antrim, founded the Disciples of Christ at Bethany, West Virginia.

The Chesapeake incident in which the British frigate Leopard stopped the American warship Chesapeake close to the American shore supposedly to exchange "dispatches." When it became clear the British were looking to impress men into its navy, the Americans resisted. A broadside was fired into the unsuspecting American ship. The British then forcibly removed four American crew members after searching the ship for British "deserters." This impressment of American sailors into British Naval service is not new, since 1798 over 9,000 Americans were taken in this manner. The Chesapeake incident was the last straw and almost brought the two countries to war. It was a contributing factor when war did break out five years later.

1808 A proposal for Catholic emancipation that gave the government the right of veto over appointments of clergy into the hierarchy is rejected by the Catholic bishops of Ireland.

Joseph Carless of Westmeath founded the first newspaper west of the Mississippi River, the Missouri Gazette.

1809 James Madison elected President

Doctor Ephriam McDowell performed the first Ovariotomy, without anesthetic.

1810 Thomas O'Connor was editor of The Shamrock, the first Irish American newspaper. O'Connor later ran for Mayor of New York.

1811 The first quarterly review in America, "The American Review of History and Politics", was started by Irishman Robert Walsh. He later started other publications and served as U.S. Consul in Paris in 1845-1851.

The British pay Chief Tecumseh to raid the American northern border and pays him for every American scalp brought to them. This Pawnee Chief joined his warriors to the British effort in the War of 1812.

1812 War was declared with England, many men of Irish parentage served notably for the United States during the War of 1812. Among them were: Andrew Jackson, who at 47 defeated the British at New Orleans, his parents were from County Antrim.

Commodore Oliver H. Perry, who won the Battle of Lake Eire, his mother was from County Down.

Commodore Thomas Macdonough, who won the Battle of Plattsburg, his grandfather came over from County Kildare.

Commodore John Shaw, who commanded the United States squadron in the Mediterranean during the war, was Irish.

A Captain Boyle with his ship, The Comet, with 12 guns and 120 men defeated three British ships with 20 guns that were escorted by a Portuguese Man of War with 20 guns. Boyle went on to capture three more British ships on the same voyage.

General William Carroll was second in command at the Battle of New Orleans.

Captain Johnson Blakey of County Down was voted a medal by the United States Congress for his exploits at sea during the course of the war.

Commodore Charles Stewart, whose daughter would be the mother of Charles Stewart Parnell, was Captain of the U.S.S. Constitution, "Old Iron Sides."

William Duane, of Dublin, who promoted Thomas Jefferson's new Democratic Party in his newspaper, The Aurora, was Adjutant-General during the war.

1813 Indian Chief Tecumseh was killed by a shot fired by an 80 year old Irishman named Mason in the Battle of Thames.

Peter McQueen, a halfbreed is Chief of a Creek subtribe, the Chief of another Creek subtribe, the Salpouches, is Alexander McGillivray, who becomes Chief of the Nation later.

1814 Major General John Ross of Ireland, in the British service burns the White House. He later is killed by a young boy as he ordered the sacking of Baltimore.

Francis Scott Key of Celtic ancestry, shown in this painting by Percy Moran, while aboard a U. S. ship watched as Fort McHenry and its giant American Flag was under bombardment. After the bombardment was over and he saw the American Flag still standing over the fort he was moved to write a poem, "The Star Spangled Banner" which became our National Anthem.

Albert Gallatin worked out the Treaty of Ghent for the United States, it settled the border between Canada and the United States.

General William Carroll was second in command to General Andy Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans.

1815 Augustine Macarty, of Irish descent, was Mayor of New Orleans.

William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition was Governor of the Missouri.

John Mullanphy, a veteran of the French Brigade in the United States, cornered the cotton market in the Mississippi Valley and becomes a very wealthy man.

1815 Andrew Jackson defeats a British invasion force at New Orleans.

1816 Archibald Mellon came to America from County Tyrone. His grandson was Andrew Mellon.

Saint Patrick's Day celebrated in New Orleans with the Governor in attendance.

DeWitt Clinton was Governor of New York.

1817 James Monroe elected President of the United States, he was a descendant of two Scottish families: MacKenzie and Munro. He was also related to Major Andrew Monroe of County Derry. John C. Calhoun was his Secretary of State and J. McClean his Postmaster.

1818 Work begins on the Eire Canal, the canal came from the brain of one Irishman (Colles), and the brawn of thousands.

General Andrew Jackson shoots two English agents stirring up the Seminole Indians in Florida.

1819 The Onis Treaty with Spain is signed giving the United States all former Spanish territories east of the Mississippi River to the United States. This treaty renounced all claims to Texas, a very unpopular result of the treaty for many Americans. This was why when Texas was annexed in 1845, many Americans and politicians called it a re-annexation.

1820 Saint Patrick's Day celebrated in Saint Louis by Irish immigrants. For the next decade, 50,000 Irish immigrants entered the United States.

An Irish colony was founded in Texas by John McMullen and James Power.

1823 Daniel O'Connell later known as the "Great Emancipator" founds the Catholic Association and begins to campaign for full civil rights for Catholics.

James Shields of Dungannon, County Tyrone settled in Illinois. He would, after a distinguished military career, be the Governor of Oregon, and United States Senator to Illinois, Minnesota, and Missouri.

Alexander Stewart of County Antrim settled into New York City and opened A.T. Stewart and Company, Americas first large scale retail store.

William R. King, son of Irish parents, was the U.S. Senator from Alabama. In 1844 he was U.S. Minister to France. In 1848 he was again one of the U.S. Senators from Alabama, in 1850 he was Vice President of the United States and President of the United States Senate.

1824 John McLoughlin, whose father was born in Donegal, became the chief factor for the Hudson's Bay Trading Company.

He ruled until 1826 the area that would one day be Oregon, Washington, Northern California, Idaho, and parts of Nevada, Wyoming, and western Canada.

John Quincy Adams, son of President John Adams, is elected President by the House of Representatives over Andrew Jackson who had tied him in the electoral voting. John C. Calhoun was Vice President.

1825 John Murphy was Governor of Alabama until 1829.

1826 A Catholic Association candidate wins election in Waterford.

1827 O'Connell is overwhelmingly elected to the Parliament from Clare even though as a Catholic he is not eligible for the office.

John J. Read of Dublin is in California, he later settles Sausalito.

1828 Andrew Jackson, son of Irish immigrants, was elected President of the United States. He was nominated by a Mr. Kennedy. His Republican opponent was James G. Blaine, whose mother was Irish. Jackson's Vice President, John C. Calhoun, was also the son of Irish immigrants.

Peggy O'Neal's husband, John Eaton's appointment as Secretary of War brings musical chairs to the "kitchen cabinet."

Andrew Jackson once said:

I have always been proud of my race, and rejoice that I am so nearly allied to a country which has so much to recommend it to the good wishes of the world...Irishmen have never been backward in giving their support to the cause of Liberty.

Don Timoteo Murphy of County Wexford, received a land grant near San Rafael in California. Later he was Alcalde of San Rafael.

Edward Kavanagh is Acting Governor of Maine.

Alex MaComb was Commanding General of the United States Army.

Scotsman James Neilson patents his hot blast furnace.

1829 Catholic Emancipation, Catholics are granted the right to sit in Parliament and to be eligible for all civic and military positions. O'Connell is called "The Liberator", and forms a voting bloc in Parliament which holds the balance of power between the Whigs and Tories.

William Louis Sharkey, a second generation Irishman, was elected Speaker of the House of the Mississippi Legislature.

1830 During the decade 237,000 Irish immigrants come to the United States.

A 400 mile trail which began in Saint John, New Brunswick and ended in Boston, Massachusetts was called the "Irish Trail."

In the early years of Irish immigration, the Irish not wanting the loneliness of the frontier and unable to farm for a lack of money to get started, began to crowd the port cities of the American coast from Newfoundland to Georgia. The labor intensive jobs in these areas were dominated by the Irish. A number of colonization projects were begun to relieve communities of the taxing problems caused by the Irish crowding into their communities, the plan was to move many of the Irish away from the Eastern seaboard to the interior of America these projects resulted in the following towns being developed: "The Barrens" near Marshall, Illinois; Armagh, Missouri; Downpatrick, Missouri, Byrnesville, Missouri; Belfort, New York; Clayton, New York; Benedicta, Maine; Pompey, New York; Gary Owen, Iowa; Wexford, Iowa.

Like the Cumberland Valley in the American Colonies before it, an area of New Brunswick began to become a gathering place of Irish so quickly that they were the dominant settlers. The area was known as Miramichi located in what is now Northumberland County, New Brunswick off the Miramichi River which feeds into Miramichi Bay. One of the early towns was Williamstown, previously known as "Irish Settlement." Just as the Irish inhabitants of the Cumberland Valley overflowed and settled the Shenandoah Valley and then began the walk along the Natchez Trace, so, too, did the Irish of Miramichi leave their valley to settle other areas. The main skill and industry of these men was lumbering. A skill they took with them to begin settlements in Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Maine. Still later descendants of these families moved to the forests of the Pacific Northwest and to Alaska. Fishing and farming were also important industries of Miramichi.

1831 Saint Mary's Church in an Irish neighborhood of New York City is set a fire and burned down.

Gerard C. Brandon, born in Ireland, was Governor of Mississippi, later he was the Chief Justice of Mississippi(1833).

1832 O'Connell announced his intention to work for the repeal of the Act of Union, and of restoring Ireland's autonomy in legislative matters.

1833 Louis McLane is Secretary of State, he served earlier, in 1831 as Secretary of the Treasury.

The Governor of Maine is a Dunlop from Ireland.

1834 Ursuline Convent burned down in Charlestown, Massachusetts by an anti-Catholic mob.

Charles O'Malley, a fur trader on Mackinac Island in Michigan, promoted a large scale immigration of Irish from his native Mayo County to Michigan. Five counties of Michigan have Irish names: Antrim, Clare, Roscommon, Wexford, and Emmet named after the Irish patriot.

Cyrus McCormick, of Irish ancestry, received a patent for his reaper, by 1858 he is a millionaire ten times over. He becomes the biggest landlord in Chicago with his investments. His company becomes the International Harvester Company in 1902. Today that company is known as Navistar.

1835 O'Connell makes a deal with the Whigs called "The Lichfield Compact" whereby he and his bloc will support the Whigs and keep them in control of the Government in return for favorable legislation for Ireland.

Benjamin F. Butler is the United States Secretary of War.

Irish born Gerard C. Brandon is elected Governor of Tennessee.

1836 Thomas Drummond, Whig Chief Secretary, ordered a more impartial administration of justice in Ireland.

The Irish Constabulary, a national police force, is established.

The Battle of San Jacinto, with Irishman Sam Houston as the Texan commander, the battle leads to the establishment of the Republic of Texas.

Mrs. Eaton, the former Peggy O'Neal, and another Irisher, Andrew Jackson helped elect Martin Van Buren President of the United States.

The first McGuffey's Eclectic Readers are published, they were written by William Holmes McGuffey.

William Lyon MacKenzie led a rebellion in Upper Canada to get the British out. They asked for U.S. help, this led to the "Caroline" affair where the United States and England very nearly went to war.

General Hugh Brady was the U.S. General in charge of the ground troops in the area.

1838 More beneficial legislation for Ireland, when requirements of the Tithe Act are reduced, and the Poor Act was enacted which regulated relief for the indigent.

1839 Rebecca riots in Wales.

1840 In this decade 800,000 Irish immigrants came to the United States John Tyler is President, John C. Calhoun is again Secretary of State (after Upshur).

1841 The Tories were elected into the Government, O'Connell decides to push for repeal of the Act of Union, but his election as Lord Mayor of Dublin delays his action.

Bejamin Fitzpatrick was Governor of Alabama. He became U.S. Senator in 1848.

1842 The newspaper, The Nation, is founded by Thomas Davis and Charles Gavan Duffy. It became the voice of a new movement, Young Ireland.

Lola Montez, whose real name was Maria Delores Elizarosana Gilbert was born in Limerick, Ireland in 1818. She became famous as a Spanish Dancer . She moved in high circles, she was a close friend of Czar Nicholas, Franz Liszt, Balzac, and Alexander Dumas. She was a mistress to Ludwig the First of Bavaria, who made her Countess of Landsfeld, and later, Baroness Rosenthal. Lola Montez was said to be the most powerful woman in Germany in the 1840's. She caught gold fever and went to California where her fame followed her. Her last days were in New York City, where she was a friend of New York society.

Rebecca riots again in Wales.

1843 O'Connell staged "monster meetings", political rallies showing public support of the repeal of the Act of Union. Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel declared his willingness to accept civil war, rather than to accept repeal. He bans the monster meetings. Although O'Connell called off the first meeting planned after the ban, at Clartarf, he had O'Connell arrested for conspiracy.

1844 O'Connell was tried and sentenced to one year in prison, but was released by an appeal from the House of Lords. The Repeal Movement was effected by these events and began to unravel.

Riots in Philadelphia because Bishop Francis P. Kenrock, originally from Dublin, obtained approval for Catholic children to use the Douay version of the bible in school. A mob moves into the Irish neighborhood of Kensington. Forty people are killed, sixty wounded.

Anti-Catholic riots in Philadelphia, Irish neighborhoods are attacked. Thirty people are killed, 150 wounded. Anti-Irish nativism has caused other violence in the past seven years from Boston to New York.

Irishman James K. Polk elected President of the United States. James Buchanan is Secretary of State.

Polk in a speech stated:

All my sympathies are with the oppressed and suffering

people of Ireland...I sincerely wish the Irish Patriots

success.

Benton, Wisconsin founded by Dennis Murphy of Wexford.

1845 The potato bight returns, destroying a third of the crop in Ireland.

John L. Sullivan, a newspaper editor, coined the phrase "Manifest Destiny" meaning an American empire from sea to sea. There is some evidence that he may have taken credit for the term first used by his employee, Jane McManus.

The Fremont Bear revolt flag was raised and independence declared at the ranch of Martin Murphy near Sacramento. The Murphys earlier broke the trail through the Sierra Nevadas with their guide and a family of Sullivans. In the Winter of 1846 the Donner party tried the same route. Among the members of that ill fated party was Patrick O'Brien, his wife and two children, and a Patrick Dolan. It was O'Brien's diary that told the world of their last days.

1846 The Young Irelanders broke with O'Connell because he insisted they accept the principle of non-violence.

Philip Augustin Roach, of Cork, Ireland, was the last Alcalde; and the first Mayor of Monterey, California.

1847 Famine was widespread in Ireland. More Irish leave the intolerable conditions in Ireland, but in their escape many found they left more than Ireland behind them. On the Virginius, a ship carrying 476 Irish passengers to America, 267 died on board before reaching America. Others died on the front steps of their new country where they were quarantined and died. The Montreal Emigrant Society reported that at cemeteries near Canadian points of entry "...are to be found the final resting places of the sons and daughters of Erin. Twenty thousand and upwards went down to their graves never really having entered Canada.

On Grosse Island, near Detroit, an old immigration entry point has a plaque that reads; "In this secluded spot lie the mortal remains of 5,294 persons who, flying from pestilence and famine in Ireland in the year 1847, found in America but a grave."

O'Connell died.

Bram Stokes of Dublin writes the novel, Dracula.

William Brady is Governor of New York.

1848 Inspired by a revolution in France, the Young Irelanders raised their own tricolor of independence. There is little support from a population ravaged from the famine. All the leaders, William Smith O'Brien, Thomas Meagher, John Mitchel, Thomas D'Arcy McGee, among them, were caught and tried.

General Lewis Cass, U.S. Senator from Michigan was the Democratic nominee for President of the United States, his Vice President on the ticket was General William O. Butler. Both men were of Irish descent. General Zachary Taylor won the election, his descendants come from that same part of southwestern England as did Washington's, the Celtic southwest.

The Order of the Star Spangled Banner, a secret anti-immigration, anti-Catholic society is formed. Its members later become known as the Know Nothings as that is there response to any questions. The organization grew to control the politics of several states to the Governor level. In 1856, they are powerful enough to support Millard Filmore for President. The organization died when those who were elected proved ineffective or criminal.

1849 Tom Maguire arrived in San Francisco. He opened a lavish saloon and gambling house, fire destroyed the building and he built a bigger one. It was too big and he had to sell it, it became the City Hall of San Francisco.

Territorial Governor of California is General Bennett Riley., the first Mayor of San Francisco is Malachi Fallon. Fallon Street in the city is named for him.

1850 The Tenant Right League was formed by Charles Gavan Duffy and lasts until 1859 when internal dissension kills the movement.

Patrick Flanagan of Bainbridge, Ireland, founded Umpqua City, Oregon. In 1853, he founded Empire, Oregon.

During this decade over 900,000 Irish immigrants came to the United States.

1853 John "Old Smoke" Morrissey, born in Tipperary, defeated "Yankee Sullivan at the four corners in New York in the bareknuckle Heavyweight Championship. Morrissey was still champ in 1858 when he defeated John Heenan. Morrissey then retired handing the crown to Heenan to defend. "Old Smoke" went on to become a U.S. Congressman. He got his nickname from a fight in which he knocked over a stove and fell on the coals, he got up and knocked out his opponent, while his coattails were smoking.

1854 Editor John L. Sullivan is appointed U. S. Minister to Portugal.

Irish born Bishop Mathias Loras of Dubuque, Iowa organized Saint Patrick's Colony in the Nebraska Territory. The first settlement of the colony was made by Irish born Father Jeremiah Tracey at St. John's City. It later became Jackson, Nebraska.

1855 Thirty four percent of New York's voters are Irish born. Twenty seven percent of the city's police force is Irish born.

Andrew Mellon is U.S. Secretary of the Treasury.

Father Jeremia T. Treacy led a group of Irish from Iowa to found a colony called St. Johns, Nebraska. One of the families was the Creightons. Two Creighton brothers, Edward and John helped pioneer Nebraska. Later they founded Creighton University.

Cris Mahoney established a trading post in the Dakota Territory.

1856 James Buchanan, grandson of John Russell Buchanan of County Donegal, is elected President of the United States.

1857 William Kelly invents and patents a converter for making steel.

Twelve Irishmen sign the statehood constitution for Oregon.

1858 The Irish Republican Brotherhood, otherwise known as the Fenians, was founded in Ireland and in the United States

by James Stephens and John O'Mahony respectively. Their movement was based on the idea that only an armed force would free Ireland, they therefore began to organize a secret military organization.

John O'Donahue founded the Long Island Ferry.

1859 William W. Corcoran, son of an Irish immigrant, founded the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington D. C..

The Comestock Lode is discovered in Nevada. John MacKay and his partners; Flood, Fair, and O'Brien soon own the mine.

Andrew Gregg Curin was Governor of Pennsylvania.

Irish born John Stanage established a trading post that became Mission Hills, South Dakota. John McHenry founded a trading post the became Bloomindale, South Dakota.

The settlement of Gary Owen is established in the Dakota Territory.

Bishop James O'Connor, through the Catholic ColonizationBureau in Omaha, Nebraska, founded the settlements of Greely and O'Neil, Nebraska.

1860 New York became the biggest Irish city in the world with a population of 203, 740 Irish born residents. Neighboring Brooklyn had a population of 56, 710 Irish born residents.

Thomas Moore, of Irish ancestry, was elected Governor of Louisiana.

Dooley Mountain, Oregon named for John Dooley who operated a toll road.

Twelve Mile House established by Michael Ryan was the beginning of Jefferson, South Dakota.

1861 The American Civil War during which Fenians joined and trained for the day when they would bring the training and manpower to use to free Ireland. The Civil War and the Irish is discussed in the text of The Celtic Connection in the chapter entitled Confederate Texas. The Celtic Connection is another part of the website and can be found by going back to the main page. Some Irish not mentioned are: Charles Halpin, a propagandist, hired by Lincoln for the Irish community at large; and Anna Ella Carroll who was a member of Lincoln's Cabinet. She was important in that she:

> Helped defeat secession in Maryland

> Suggested the strategy of cutting the South in two.

> Encouraged and pushed for Grant's promotions.

Major Martin Delany held the highest rank of more than 180,000 Blacks in the Union Army.

Acting Governor of Oregon was Henry McGill, he was followed by L.J.S. Turney.

John G. Downey of Roscommon is Governor of California. Anahiem is named for his sister, Downey is named for him.

1862 William "Boss" Tweed, whose father was born in Ireland, gained control of Tammany Hall in New York.

1864 Doctor James McBride was U.S. Minister to Hawaii. He negotiated the purchase of Alaska.

Andrew Gordon Magrath elected Governor of South Carolina

The Irish Emigrations Society is organized by Father John Ireland in St. Paul, Minnesota.

1865 Andrew Johnson became President of the United States, his mother was Mary McDonough of Irish ancestry.

Stephens and his staff are arrested in Ireland.

William Russell Grace founded the W.R. Grace Company.

Welsh emigrants settle Patagonia, South America.

Eliza Lynch of Cork, Ireland was the unofficial First Lady of Paraguay. In 1853, while living in Paris she met General Francisco Solano Lopez the heir to the Paraguayan leadership when she was 21 years old. She followed him when he returned to Paraguay, pregnant with his child. By 1858 she was a social leader in the community, despite frequently becoming pregnant and not being accepted by the Paraguayan elite. Between 1855 and 1861 she gave birth to five more sons, all of whom publicly bore the López name. She rose high in the world in a material sense, recipient of gift after gift from her admiring general. "Madame Lynch" - as she styled herself, was popularly known as "La Lynch" - was a lady to be emulated if not to have affection for, and her social reputation placed her on an equal footing with some foreign diplomats, for she did her part to modernise Paraguay. Thus began a cultural transfer of French, rather than English or Irish, customs to replace the native ones.

She became the world's largest female landowner. By 1865 she owned several large ranches and at least twenty-six urban properties. During Paraguay's Triple Alliance War against
Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay, her lover, Francisco Solano López, the President of Paraguay, transferred vast properties into Lynch's name perhaps in order to protect some of his wealth in case he lost the war or had to abdicate. He ordered the sale to Eliza Lynch of over 800,000 acres of state lands and forests located in the Chaco region. In addition, she acquired 12,000,000 acres in eastern Paraguay and another 9,000,000 acres of yerbales and forests in the contested area north of the river Apa.

In the 1970s, under the influence of nationalist and revisionist historians, Eliza Lynch was proclaimed a Paraguayan national heroine. A central street in Asunción was named 'Madame Lynch' in her honour.

1866 American Fenians invaded Canada led by John O'Neill of County Monaghan, and win the initial battles, the U.S. intervened and had the Fenians withdraw and disarm. Other excursions took place against Campo Bello Island, New Brunswick; and from Saint Albans, Vermont.

The main speaker at a Fenian gathering in New York City was a man who was a resident during the past year, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. The General spoke of the role played by the San Patricio Battalion in the Mexican War. It was during his stay in New York that his recently hired American secretary, James Adams noticed Santa Anna cutting off bits of a Mexican plant and chewing it. The plant was chicle, and thus was born the United States chewing gum industry.

James Fisk and Thomas Meagher organize Irish settlements in Montana.

1867 Fenian rising in Munster is shortlived.

Fenians staged bombings and shootings in England.

Clan na-Gael founded in Ireland.

William McDougal was appointed Governor of Rupert's Land (Manitoba).

1868 Prime Minister W.E. Gladstone began a policy of reform to Ireland.

The settlement of Emmet is established in Dakota Territory by Dennis Carrol, Patrick Jennings and John and Brigit Maher. All of them were Irish.

1869 The Church of Ireland was announced as no longer the official church of Ireland.

Ulysses S. Grant elected President of the United States, his mother, Hannah Simpson was of Irish ancestry from County Tyrone, as was Grant's paternal grandmother, Rachel Kelly.

George Francis Train, a man of considerable ability, ran for President of the United States. Train invented the Pencil eraser, and perforated edges on stamps. He was offered the Presidency of the short lived Republic of Australia. In the election against Grant there were two other Irishmen running, Charles O'Conor, and Horace Greely, the founder of the New York Tribune. Train left politics to travel around the world, his exploits were Jules Vernes' model for his story, Around The World In Eighty Days.

John Roy Lynch was the son of an Irish father and a Black mother on a Louisiana plantation. He rose from slavery to be a Justice of the Peace at age 21. He later was a Mississippi legislator, and Speaker of the House in 1873. He was the first Black ever elected to the United States House of Representatives (1873). He was the Keynote speaker at the Republican national convention of 1887, there was not another until 1968 (81 years).

James Gordon Bennett Senior died, he was a Scot who married an Irish woman, their son James Gordon Bennett, Junior inherited the business empire his father had built topped by the New York Herald. By the time he inherited the business, sportsman young Bennett already had established the America yacht series of races, brought polo and tennis onto the American scene, and founded other races. His automobile race is today's Grand Prix, his races for balloons, motorboats, and aeroplanes led to advancements of design and power.

When Bennett got the paper it was he who sent Stanley looking for Livingston in deepest Africa, men into the arctic, and into Siberia. An Alaskan lake, an African mountain and river, and a Siberian island are all named after this Irishman. Perhaps hisgreatest landmark is in New York, where Herald Square stands to remind us that remember, who he was.

1870 Isaac Butt began his Home Rule movement which sought complete self-government for Ireland.

Orange riots of New York, when Orangemen organized a parade on July 12 to celebrate the Battle of the Boyne. The next year the parade was held again with police and militia on hand. An incident caused the militia to fire and 37 people were killed, 67 wounded.

John O'Neill led another attack into Canada from Franklin, Vermont; another group tried to enter from Malone, New York. The Canadians were waiting for both groups.

Mrs Patrick O'Leary's cow was said to cause the Great Chicago Fire, by knocking over a lantern.

A Fenian Committee met in Sioux Falls, Iowa to establish an Irish community in Dakota Territory called Limerick. It is today Brule City, South Dakota.

The Welsh language began to seriously decline in usage.

1871 David C. Butler who was elected Nebraska's first governor, was impeached. In 1877 the impeachment proceedings were expunged, and in 1888, Butler was again elected Governor of Indiana.

An invasion by Fenians into Rupert's Land (Manitoba) from Pembina, Dakota led by William B. O'Donaghue and John O'Neil.

Several Irish communities are started in the Dakota Territiry among them are: Lennox, Finely, Runnung Water and Worthing.

1872 The secret ballot is introduced in Ireland.

Charles O'Conor, an Irish Catholic was nominated for the Presidency of the United States by a third party. O'Conor gained fame as the prosecutor of the Tweed ring in New York. He declined to run.

"Honest" John Kelly, a reformer, controls New York politics from the "wigwam" at Tammany Hall through 1886 at his death.

1873 Augustus Saint Gaudens, a Dubliner, began his career in New York that leads to his world fame as a noted sculpture.

John William McKay, another Dubliner, struck it rich again, in a gold mine in Nevada called "the Bonanza", other Irish associated with McKay were the same as with his silver discovery: James Graham Fair, James M. Walker, James Flood, and William O'Brien.

McKay had a reputation for high quality and good luck, for a generation his named was used as an expression, as in "its a John McKay!.

All these men became rich, Fair was a U.S. Senator from California, James Flood built the last great mansion on Nob Hill, San Francisco.

George Bennet, of Bandon, Ireland in County Cork, founds the town of Bandon, Oregon.

1874 The Home Rule movement elected 59 members to the House of Commons.

O'Neil City, Nebraska founded by John O'Neil.

1875 Charles Stewart Parnell elected to the House of Commons, he emerged as the leader of the Home Rule faction in the House.

John McCluskey was appointed the first American Cardinal of the Catholic Church. He completed Saint Patrick's Cathedral begun by the irrepressible Bishop of New York, John Joseph Hughes. In 1841, Cardinal McCluskey was appointed the first President of Fordham University.

1876 Custer's last stand with the predominately Irish Seventh Cavalry. His mother was a Kirkpatrick. Miles Keogh was the last Union soldier standing according to Indians present during the battle. He was able to kill six Indians who charged him at the end. Because he died grasping the reins of his horse, and had a death grip on those reins, his horse survived the battle. Thereafter at all ceremonial events the horse, Comanche, walked at the head of Keogh's old unit draped in a black mourning net, with a pair of cavalry riding boots pointing backwards and downward in the stirrups. When the horse died 15 year after the battle it was preserved and still can be seen today in a museum at Fort Riley, Kansas. The ceremony with the empty saddle and boots continued to be used by the military. It was used at President John F. Kennedy's funeral.

The presidential election of 1876 was all but conceded to the Democrat Samuel J. Tilden, when some Republican strategists realized that the remaining three states yet to be canvassed were the Republican states of Florida,, South Carolina, and Louisiana. If Rutherford B. Hayes won all three states he would be elected President by one electoral vote. Telegrams went out along with lots of money to Republican leaders in the three states to be sure the vote was "correct."

John Boyle O'Reilly who was deported to Australia from Ireland for raising rebellion, escaped and made his way to the United States where he established the respected newspaper the Boston Pilot. Together with another Fenian, John Devoy, O'Reilly went back to Western Australia and rescued those that did not escape.

Contarf and DeGraff, Minnesota were established by the Catholic Colonization Bureau. They were Irish communities. They are followed by the establishment of Adrian, Avoca, Iona, Currie and Graceville.

1877 Walshtown is established in the Dakota Territory.

1878 American Fenians endorsed the Home Rule political approach.

Colonel Thomas Lincoln Casey devised a plan to finish constructing the Washington Monument which was abandoned 23 years earlier because of foundation problems. Colonel Casey completed the monument and later, as General Casey, built the Library of Congress.

1879 The National Land League is formed under the leadership of Michael Davitt. Their objective was to halt unfair evictions, and attempt to control rents for the short term. Their long term goal was land reform.

Terence V. Powderly was elected Grand Master of the Knights of Labor, the first national labor union. During the 1800's he was America's labor leader. He later was Mayor of Scranton, Pennsylvania.

The "Molly Maguire" movement in Pennsylvania's Schuykill County coal mines. The movement was brought to a conclusion by an Irish owner of the mines, Franklin Gowen, and a mine operator who went underground as an informant by the name of James McParlan.

1880 Tension between land owners and tenant farmers resulted in evictions of sometimes a brutal nature. The response was ostracism by the Land Leaguers, best illustrated by the actions against Captain Charles Boycott, a land agent in Mayo, that led to the term "boycott."

William R. Grace elected Mayor of New York.

Stephen H. Horgan, with an Irish heritage, developed the halftone process that allows photographs to be printed in newspapers.

Robert Emmet Haire established Columbia, South Dakota and O'Connor, Erina, Greely Center and Spalding, Nebraska.

Joseph and Ann Kiley establish Mattoe in the Dakota Territory. It becomes Pierre, the capitol of North Dakota.

1881 Gladstone attempted to end the land war in Ireland. He arrested Davitt and Parnell, and outlaws the Land League.

John Holland of County Clare, invents the submarine. He immigrates to the United States and builds it. He named the first one the Fenian Ram.

Chester Alan Arthur, whose father was born in County Antrim, was President Garfield's Vice President, and became President when Garfield was assassinated in 1881.

James J. Blaine was Secretary of State under Garfield. He originated the Pan American Congress.

Pat Garrett shot dead Henry McCarty, otherwise known as Billy the Kid.

The Shoot out at the OK Corral, two of the dead are the McLaury brothers, Frank and Tom.

Outlaw brothers Frank and Jesse James descended from a James who left County Kerry in the 1700's.

1882 Gladstone and Parnell negotiate the "Kilmainham Treaty" which ended the land war on terms favorable to the tenants.

In the Black Mountains of New Mexico during the gold years there, there were four Irish miners known as the "Four Neals".

They were: Neal McGarvey, Neal O' Gallagher, Neal McConway, and Neal O' Boyle. They were all former Mollie Maquires that got away before being caught. The four Neals owned the Erin Go Bragh Mining Company. Some of their mines in the Hillsboro, New Mexico area included: the Saint Patrick, the Colleen Bawn, the Donegal Slasher, the Home Rule, the Galloway Slugger, and the Erin Go Bragh. One day Neal McGarvey climbed a local peak and proclaimed it McGarvey's Peak, soon after "Knock Kneed" Jim, the bartender at the Monarch saloon climbed another nearby peak and put up a sign declaring it to be the Orange Lodge. This led to a confrontation and a fight, one man was killed and the four Neals were placed in jail. They escaped and never returned to the area.

Grover Cleveland, whose mother was an O'Neil, was elected President. Many Irish are appointed to positions in the administration. He was formerly Governor of New York. His Secretary was Lincoln O'Brien.

General Ashby O'Neal was the Governor of Alabama, previously he was with Confederate forces at the Battle of Gettysburg.

He served as Governor until 1886.

Blaine stays as Secretary of State, Patrick Eagan appointed U.S. Minister to Chile.

John L. Sullivan defeated Paddy Ryan for the bareknuckle Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1883 Robert McLane, son of Louis McLane, was Governor of Maryland, later in 1885-1889 he was U.S. Minister to France.

1884 Samuel McClure, of County Antrim, established the first newspaper syndicate.

Hugh McCulloch was Secretary of the Treasury, he had served in the same position 1863-1869.

John McKay and Gordon Bennett funded the laying of the first transatlantic cable.

1885 The Asbourne Act was passed that allowed state aid for tenants to purchase the land they worked.

Hugh O'Brien elected Mayor of Boston. He was born in County Fermanagh.

Grover Cleveland was elected to his second term as President of the United States, his mother's father was born in County Antrim.

Richard Croker, who was born in Cork, took control of Tammany Hall and held it for 16 years.

Miles C. Moore was Governor of Oregon, two earlier Governors were John Harte McGraw and Henry McBride.

1886 Prime Minister Gladstone introduced a home rule bill for Ireland, it is defeated in the House of Commons and Gladstone is forced from office. Sounding the call "Home Rule means Rome Rule", agitators sowed strife in Ulster which resulted in riots in Belfast.

The McGlynn Affair, an Irish Priest Father Edward McGlynn endorsed a candidate for Mayor of New York. New York Bishop Michael Corrigan suspended McGlynn and sent word of his actions to Rome. The Vatican excommunicated McGlynn. The Irish priest was restored in 1892 by the Pope without telling Corrigan.

The whole affair resulted in the Catholic Church in America having its authority limited.

John Louis Sullivan, the editor, gave the formal acceptance speech at the presentation of the Statue of Liberty.

Victor Herbert, from Dublin, begins his U. S. career as a major composer of light opera.

President Cleveland sacks Sir Lionel Sackville the British Ambassador, by asking him to leave the country.

Benjamin Harrison elected President of the United States. His mother was Elizabeth Irwin, who was Irish on both sides.

Irishman Steve Brodie jumped from the Brooklyn Bridge and lived. He did it as a stunt. It made him famous and added another word of Irish origin to the language. A "brodie" was for many years after, synonymous with an outrageous stunt.

There were some who questioned if Brodie ever really jumped, this gave another interpretation of the word, to pull a "brodie" meaning to attempt to get away with something, or to successfully get away with something.

Cymru Fydd (Young Wales) Movement is founded. David Lloyd George was one of its leaders.

1887 Ann Mansfield Sullivan began her courageous work with Helen Keller.

1888 James G. Blaine was elected Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Frank McGurrin invented the "touch" typing system.

David H. McConnell founded a company known today as Avon.

The last victim of Jack the Ripper in London was Mary Jane Kelly in November.

The fall of Parnell from power, since 1887, the Catholic Church was investigating first his movement's and then his own attitude in relation to the church's teachings. This was heightened when it was believed Parnell endorsed political assassination. The matter was dropped when it was learned it was based on dubious evidence. In the end it was Parnell's personal relationship with Kitty O'Shea, a married woman, that his enemies used to remove him from power.

The Cudahy Packing Company founded by Michael Cudahy of Kilkenny, Ireland. Cudahy's pioneering of cold storage for meat changed the eating habits of America and the world.

Alfred Thayer Mahan published his most famous strategic study of naval power that shaped geopolitical thought for generations. His father was Dennis Hart Mahan a Professor of Engineering at West Point.

1891 Parnell died, and though leadership of the his patriot movement had already been passed to John Redmond, it was not without divisions within the movement. Thereafter the Patriots lost its control through coalition in British politics.

The United States very nearly went to war with Chile over a bar room brawl. The U.S. Minister to Chile was Patrick Eagan, who became concerned after a revolution in 1890-'91 installed a new government. He adopted an hostile attitude to the new government. In a Valparaiso bar, an incident occurred in which two American sailors were killed and eighteen others wounded. President Harrison was willing to go to war when the government of Chile would not give any satisfaction. Only the election of a new government in Chile stopped the war.

1892 Grover Cleveland was again elected President of the United States, the only President to win to non succeeding terms.

James "Gentleman Jim" Corbett won the first U. S. Heavyweight Boxing Championship with gloves by defeating John L. Sullivan.

In 1897 Corbett lost the title to Bob Fitzsimmons.

Gaelic League founded by Lady Gregory.

Annie Moore of Cork, Ireland was the first person to process through the new immigration facility at Ellis Island in New York harbor. In 1997 a statue of her was dedicated.

1893 Gladstone again offered a home rule bill for Ireland that passed the House of Commons but was rejected by the House of Lords.

The Gaelic League was founded to promote cultural nationalism by Doctor Douglas Hyde. He wanted to de-anglicize Irish names, games, etc. and restore and re-emphasize Gaelic traditions.

Louis Sullivan, the son of a Cork emigrant, designed the Transportation Building for the World's Columbian Exposition. His work led to his being known as the "Father of Modernism" in architecture. He is also called the "Father of the Skyscraper."

1894 The Duryea brothers, Charles Edgar, and J. Frank perfect the first successful gasoline powered automobile.

Peter James Maguire, known as the "Father of Labor Day" led the movement which resulted in the holiday. He was one of the founders of the American Federation of Labor (A.F.L.).

Mickey Cochrane baseball's greatest catchers had a great year. Hugh Duffy another Irish baseball player posts a .438 batting average in professional baseball.

1896 The Irish Socialist Republican Party is founded by James Connolly.

William Jennings Bryan was the Democratic Nominee for President. At the Democratic national convention, Bryan made his famous "Cross of Gold" speech. William McKinley was the Republican nominee. McKinley won in large part because the big city Irish vote, normally Democratic, went to him.

James Brendan Connolly was the first olympic champion of the modern games. He won the first event, the triple jump. After all the other jumpers had gone, Connolly surveyed their marks, and then threw down his hat beyond the best mark. When he jumped, he jumped beyond his hat to win. Connolly went on to a career as an author. He wrote over 25 novels, and 200 short stories.

Captain "Hell Roaring" Mike Healy, whose mother was a mulatto slave and father was the Irish owner of a Georgian plantation, patrolled the 20,000 mile coastline of Alaska for the United States Coast Guard. He was the sole representative of the United States government in the area. In 1885, he received a Congressional medal praising his work.

1897 The Irish American Historical Society was formed to make better known the contribution of the Irish to American history.

Joseph McKenna appointed Attorney General of the United States.

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