H-Blocks - shape of the cell blocks in Long Kesh prison, also called Maze Prison.

Hallstatt - The Austrian city after which a period of Celtic culture in the early European Iron Age (~700 BC) is named due to artifacts discovered there.

hard word - a hint

Harp - ancient symbol of Ireland. derisive slang for an Irishman.

name of an Irish beer.

Having a crack - Slang phrase for `ridiculing.'

Hedge schools - during most of the English administration of Ireland, the Irish were not allowed to have schools of their own, so they held informal schoolhidden out in the hedge rows. For Catholic Irish this is where the received their religious instruction as well.

Henrician Policy - the King of England would request a pledge of fealty from Irish landowners in return for which he would re-grant them the lands they held, also called surrender and re-grant.

Hibernia - a Latin term, used by Caesar, for Ireland.

Hibernian - Of or pertaining to people and things from Hibernia (Ireland). Member of the AOH.

Hibernian Society of Philadelphia - founded in 1790 to support immigrants.

Home Rule - a movement to have Ireland rule itself autonomously within the United Kingdom. No doubt had its beginning with the Act of Union but historically can trace its beginnings to O'Connell's successful Catholic Emancipation campaign that began in 1823. After the death of O'Connell, it wasn't until 1872 that the movement was again visible.

Gladstone introduced a Home-rule Bill in 1886, 1893 passed in the House of Commons but not in House of Lords. The same happens in 1913. Finally it passes in 1914 over the House of Lords objections (any bill passed three times by the House of Commons) but is suspended until after WW I. Home rule given Northern Ireland in 1920. The issue leads to the establishment of the Irish Free State for the other 26 counties in 1921.

hooligan - A rogue, hoodlum, rowdy from Patrick Hooligan, an 1898 Irish troublemaker in Southwark, London.

hooliganism - usually malicious vandalism or any other small time harassment, from the same as above.

Homeless Citizen's League- organized in 1963 by Mrs. Patricia McCluskey to move Catholic families into available public housing in an area where for no other reason than they were Catholic, the housing was not made available to them. Led to the development of the Campaign for Social Justice founded in 1964

hunger strike - A method by which prisoners hope to draw attention to some problem in their treatment. The two most famous in Irish history being the 1922 hunger strike of the Lord Mayor of Cork, Terence MacSwiney who died and focused world attention on British handling of Irish political prisoners; and the 1980 - 1981 hunger strike in Long Kesh prison (Maze) in which 10 Irish political prisoners died.

hunkers - haunches

Hunt Report - A critical report of the Royal Irish Constabulary issued in 1969 by English Lord Hunt calling for major reforms in the organization.

hurling - An Irish sport, something of a combination of field hockey and lacrosse that is played with a broad bladed stick with which one can hit, carry, or hurl a 9 - 10 inch ball over a crossbar between goalposts.

hurrah - Hooray, a cheer, or hooray a fuss or controversy also campaign.

hyphenism - A critical term from the Wilson Administration referring to ethnic immigrants who referred to themselves as X-Americans, as in Irish-Americans or Greek-Americans rather than as Americans.

I.D.A. - Irish Development Authority, an Irish government agency organized to promote foreign investment in Ireland.

IFI - The International Fund for Ireland was established by the British and Irish governments in 1986 as an independent international organization

to promote economic and social advance; and to encourage contact, dialogue and reconciliation between nationalists and unionists throughout Ireland.

The United States, The European Union, Canada, Australia and New Zealand have all contributed funds during the past ten years that provided the resources for over 3,400 different projects that furthered the goals of the Fund.

I.N.C.- Irish National Caucus

I.N.L.A.- Irish National Liberation Army

I.R.A.- Irish Republican Army

I.R.B.- Irish Republican Brotherhood

iarfine - a further extension of the Celtic family beyond the gelfine and derbfine to include the grandfather of a man who marries and starts a family and his decendants.

Iar Connacht- an ancient territory in west Connacht made up mostly of Connemara.

Iarthair - Gaelic for `autumn.'

icdhe- ancient Gaelic for 'doctor.'

Ichta of Conn - The descendants, or children, of Conn. Origin of the word Connacht.

Ierna - An ancient name for Ireland.

imorro - Gaelic for 'however',' but'.

inch - Gaelic for a low meadow near a river.

indfine - The largest Celtic family grouping that includes the gelfine, derbfine, iarfine as well as the great-grandfather and his descendants.

ingen - Gaelic for `daughter.'

inion - Another Gaelic spelling for `daughter.'

Inisfail - Ancient term for Ireland.

inis Ceatra - Gaelic for Holy Island.

inlucht - Gaelic for people, folk, tribe.

Innis Fodhla - Gaelic for Ireland of destiny.

innocents- those who are mentally ill.

innsin - Gaelic for `there.'

innso - another Gaelic version of `there.'

Insula Sacra - Another early Latin term for Ireland, Sacred Island.

internment- arrest and confinement

Invincibles - A Dublin secret society of 1882 that pledged to work for a better Ireland. Apparently this meant by assassination if necessary as they were responsible for the murder of two English officials just after the release of Stewart Parnell from English custody. The two were an envoy from England, Chief Secretary Lord Frederick Cavendish and Under-Secretary for Ireland, Thomas Henry Burke. They were murdered in Phoenix Park, Dublin.

iochtar - Gaelic for lower or northern.

ionarbadh - Gaelic for `exile.'

Ireland - Names for:

Banba

Croich na fuinedach (The Remote Country)

Eiré

Erin

Erinn

Eireann

"Emerald Isle"

Eriu

Fodla

Hibernia

Ierna

Inis Elga (Noble Island)

Inisfail

Ins na Fidbadh (Isle of Woods)

Insula Sacra (Sacred Island)

Ir

Ire

Ireland

Irin

Irish Free State

Irland

Irlanda

"Isle of Saints and Scholars"

Iuvernia

Juverna

Juvernia

Kathleen ni Houlihan

"Lamp of the West"

Muich Inis (Isle of Mist)

Ogygia (Ancient Isle)

Old Woman of Beare

Ossian

Proud Old Woman

Republic of Ireland

Roisin Dubh

Scotia

"University of Europe"



Ireland abroad- reference to the Irish population outside of Ireland.

Irish- of or pertaining to Ireland.

Language spoken in the Gaeltacht of Ireland, otherwise called Gaelic.

Irish alphabet- a modified version of the Latin alphabet.

Irish American Brotherhood- Organized in New York in 1858 by John O'Mahoney, its aim was for a free Ireland from England by force of arms. It led to the IRB and Fenian Brotherhood.

Irish American Cultural Institute - An international foundation located in Saint Paul, Minnesota to promote the heritage of Irelandand Irish America.

Irish American Defense Fund- U.S. based group formed to pay legal expenses and financial assistance to families of those charged in the U.S. for offenses connected with the Irish struggle for self-determination.

Irish American Guard- a social militia group formed in New York in the 1850's.

Irish Ancestral Research Society - A non-profit, non-denominational organization in Boston at P.O.Box 619, Sudbury, MA for Irish genealogical research.

Irish Brigade- The name of a military unit of Irish soldiers in a number of different country's armies including the United States. The Confederate States of America, France and Spain.

Irish Bull- an incongruity

Irish Catholic Colonization Association of the United States - Organized in 1879 in Chicago, Illinois as an outgrowth of the St. Patrick's Society annual convention held that year. Led by Bishop John Spalding of Peoria, Ill. the association organized Irish Catholic settlements in Minnesota and Arkansas.

Irish Citizen Army- a nationalist paramilitary group made up of James Connolly's trade unions in 1913 over the Home Rule debate. Their flag featured the Plough and Stars.

Irish Civil War - Broke out in 1922 when De Valera could no longer stomach "the compromise' that was the Free State, he and others of Sinn Fein wanted an Irish Republic. The war ended in 1923 when De Valera agreed to work within the Free State organization to effect his changes.

Irish Children's Fund- founded in 1980 sends Northern Ireland Catholic and Protestant boys between 11 and 12 to Chicago area for six-week summerstays.

Irish Christian Front- organized by Patrick Belton in 1936 to combat communist propaganda and to provide medical supplies to Spanish insurgents during the Spanish Civil War.

Irish coffee- an American invention, sometimes called coffee royale, mixing coffee with cream, sugar and Irish whiskey.

Irish confetti- bricks

Irish Constabulary - Organized as a national police force in Ireland by England in 1836. It was re-designated the Royal Irish Constabulary in 1867. It was originally an exclusively Protestant organization. Today it is still dominated by Protestants.

Irish disease- because of the many Irish who found work as laborers and miners digging tunnels that contracted tuberculosis in the 19th century, it became a metaphor for TB.

Today, Spina Bifida might be considered for the term as the disease has an unusual high incidence among the Irish.

Irish Emigrant Society- founded in New York by Robert Hogan in 1814 to assist Irish immigrants.

Irish Emigrations Society - Organized by Father John Ireland in St. Paul, Minnesota in 1864 to settle Irish immigrants in the north frontier.

Irish Georgian Society - Over 22 chapters in U.S. dedicated to preserve architectural and artistic Irish treasures.

Irish ghetto- low-income housing areas with mostly Irish immigrant families.

Irish Independence Party- formed in 1977 with the aim of seeking a British withdrawal from Ireland.

Irish Labor Party- see Labor Party

Irish Lord- a spiny, large headed, broad mouthed fish (Cottidae) from the Bering Sea area.

Irish Mafia- a group of men from West Cork that were in Frongoch Camp (a British detention camp after the Easter Rising of 1916) that Michael Collins built his organization around, after their release.

The 'kitchen cabinet' of U. S. President John F. Kennedy.

Irish mail- a three or four-wheeled toy vehicle activated by a hand lever like a railway hand-car.

Irish National Alliance - formed in 1895 to campaign against Anglo-American "entanglements."

Irish National Caucus- originally an umbrella organization of Irish American organizations lobbying the U.S. Congress for Irish

issues. Now it does it itself under the leadership of Father Seamus McManus. Focus of the organization has been the adoption of

the McBride Principles by the U.S. and state governments.

Irish National Federation of America - organized in New York City in 1891 with 150 chapters in U. S. to aid the cause of home rule and later for independence.

Irish National Land League - founded in Dublin in 1879 to establish land rights for tenants. Established in U.S. in 1880 with hundreds of branches.

Irish National Land League of the U. S. - founded May, 1880.

Irish National Liberation Army - Active since 1975, this group is made up of militant republicans, separate from the Provisional IRA. It began as disgruntled members of the Official IRA led by Seamus Costello who were fed up with the prolonged and protracted negotiations with the British and the drift of the Official's leadership to a moderate organization wanting to effect social reform by parliamentary means. Costello's group wanted to re-vitalize the cause and go back on the offensive and get things moving on a quicker course to a united Ireland. When he was suspended from the Official IRA, the INLA was formed. The Official IRA took violent measures to stop the INLA from growing. The INLA found some help from the Provisional IRA and when the Provisioanl IRA began "talks" with the British in 1975, several provos joined the INLA who were still fighting.

There is a philosophical difference between the INLA and the Provisional IRA that does not allow them to be anything but temporary allies. The INLA is more of a left-wing socialist organization while the Provisional IRA is more of a right wing nationalist organization.

The INLA was very active during the period 1979 - 1982 with violent and ruthless attacks. Informers have weakened the organization somewhat as none of the traditional republican organizations condone their goals.

Irish National Loan- organized by Eamon De Valera and James O'Mara it involved coming to the United States in 1920 as a means to raise funds for the IRA to establish a Republic of Ireland. Pledges of five million were quickly received.

Irish Neutrality - During WW II, the Republic of Ireland was officially neutral, not wanting British soldiers on her soil.

Irish Northern Aid Committee (NORAID) -A U. S. based organization formed to raise funds for the support of families of republicans incarcerated in Ireland or the United Kingdom and to publicize in America facts that are otherwise not available. It is generally believed this organization has also supplied money for guns to the IRA.

Irish Parliamentary Party - revived in 1900 by John Redmond pushes for Home Rule.

Irish Pennant - A loose rope or string, a derogatory expression from the British military.

Irish Power - Originally a reference to Irish immigrant labor in the mid-nineteenth century that helped to build much of America's infrastructure. Later it was used in discussing the voting strength of the Irish in American politics during most of the nineteenth century.

The term was also used during John F. Kennedy's presidency to describe certain voting areas and the Kennedy family and Irish friends drive.

Irish "Problem" - A euphemism for drinking intoxicating liquor.

Irish Question - A British term referring to problems with the Irish in Ireland and how to handle them. Asked of British administrators of Ireland by British public and leaders. Later used by others to describe the problem in Ireland.

Irish Race in America - A group organized to keep U.S. from entering WW I and to encourage England, after the war, to support an Irish Republic. The group had a national convention in 1916.

Irish Republican Army - Originally the Irish Volunteers. At one time considered the military arm of Sinn Fein. Fought the guerrilla war against the British in the War for Independence 1919 - 1920. When the Anglo-Irish Treaty was signed creating the partition of Ireland, the IRA split with those in favor of the treaty. Those who supported the treaty founded a new organization, the Clan na Gael, and those against it retaining the name IRA and continuing the fight against the English and causing a Civil War by fighting the Irish who compromised and formed the Free State in the 26 counties. When the civil war ended in favor of the Free Staters, there was another split in the IRA with De Valera forming the Fianna Fail to try and reach his goals and those of the IRA from within government.

The hardliners kept the name IRA and continued the war against the British and seldom attacked Irish government targets. The IRA carried out a bombing campaign in England and in Northern Ireland 1942-1944 and again 1956-1962. The last campaign actually antagonized most all the Irish people and placed the IRA in a very negative position. Over the next five years another split developed in the IRA with most of its members accepting the partition government in Stormont and the Republic government in Dublin so that talks could begin. This group became known as the Official IRA while the minority, hardliner dissenters became known as the Provisional IRA. Both groups also had an Official and a Provisional Sinn Fein as their political arm. As time went on the Official Sinn Fein became the Sinn Fein, The Workers Party and then simply The Workers Party.

The Provisional IRA continued to harass British targets in Northern Ireland and England as well some clashes with the Official IRA.

An American group led by John O'Neill made up of Union veterans invaded Canada successfully but after U. S. intervention, withdrew in 1866.

Irish Republican Brotherhood - founded in New York in 1858 by John O'Mahoney. It was a secret organization for the independence of Ireland by violence if necessary. Organized the Easter rising of 1916.

Irish Republican Socialist Party (IRSP)- political wing of the INLA

Irish settlement - When America's frontier was pushing westward the Irish went with it and settled in communities that were mostly Irish. Sometimes the term referred to a part of a settlement or larger community that was mostly Irish.

Irish Socialist Republican Party - founded in 1896 by James Connolly.

Irish stew - an Irish American term referring to a stew made up of meat and potatoes and other vegetables cooked in the broth with water added as needed.

Irish Sweepstakes - A lottery draw said to benefit Irish hospitals. Though Irish hospitals have received money and the name of the group organizing the lottery is Hospitals Trust Ltd., it is a for-profit organization. Winning names are drawn in a blind draw and then matched to names of horses in a race at one of Ireland's major race tracks with winners getting a percentage of funds set aside for winners depending on horse's placement in the race.

Irish town - That part of a town or a town itself that is predominately Irish

Irish tract - a 1743 district in the lower Shenandoah Valley occupied by mostly Irish settlers.

Irish Unionist Party - opposed Home Rule.

Irish Volunteers - Formed in 1778 to protect Ireland from foreign invasion. It began as a Protestant organization in Belfast but soon became a popular militia unit through out Ireland.

And as Ireland was open to invasion, the English agreed to arm the Volunteers for the defense of Ireland. Realizing the English, who were enmeshed in war elsewhere, could not effective disarm the Volunteers, they began to push for reforms. The first was for a non-importation of British goods which depressed the Irish manufacturing industry. Henry Grattan made the legal motion in Parliament that Ireland be allowed free trade while Napper Tandy had his Volunteer artillery unit exercising outside the Irish Parliament. Ireland got its free trade status. In 1782, the Volunteers opened their ranks to Catholics and with their even larger numbers continued to press for reforms in Ireland via Grattan and Henry Flood in Parliament. They were successful in obtaining the Renunciation

Bill in 1783 which empowered the Irish Parliament to conduct governmental business with the King rather than through the English Parliament and rubber-stamped by the formerly emasculated Irish Parliament.

Here we see the tradition of a militia organization backing the efforts of reform politicians as was the case years later when the IRA pushed reforms via the Sinn Fein.

The Volunteers almost dispersed over the Catholic issue, but it was settled and allowed and led to the formation of the United Irishmen.

In 1913 during the debate over Home Rule, there was raised a force in Ulster under Sir Edward Carson called the Ulster Volunteers to resist by force English imposition of home Rule. In the South, two professors at University College, Eoin MacNeill and Patrick Pearse, founded the National Volunteers to "secure and maintain the rights and liberties common to all the people of Ireland." There goal was to secure Home Rule and the members were mostly Fenians (IRB) and members of Arthur Griffith's Sinn Fein. Before long both groups of volunteers were armed by raiding government stores or by obtaining them overseas and having them shipped to Ireland.

Leaders began to emerge among the National Volunteers, Roger Casement, Eamon De Valera and John Redmond.

World War I burst on the scene and the Home Rule issue was tabled. John Redmond, in Parliament told the English when war was declared on August 3, 1914, that England could safely withdraw all English troops from Ireland and use them in the war effort, that Ireland could defend itself from foreign aggression. He went further and said the two volunteer groups could merge and defend Ireland.

The English ignored the offer, but the extraordinary move and the German acts on the continent led many of the volunteers to join the British Army. Though the Volunteer leadership asked for these men to be allowed to form Irish units separate from the British units but in the British Army, England refused .....except for the Ulster Volunteers which they did allow to form as a unit in the British Army.

This, and Redmonds astounding conciliatory offer led to a re-vitalization of the IRB and Sinn Fein both opposed to helping England. They decided to use the Volunteer organization to organize an insurrection on Easter Sunday, 1916.

Professor Eoin MacNeill was the leader of the National Volunteers who did not support Redmonds offer to help the English. He believed Ireland should neutral in the war. When he learned England was considering a Conscription Act that would include Ireland he organized a demonstration against it to be held on Easter Sunday, 1916. The IRB and the Citizen's Army had penetrated the management ranks of the Volunteers and were preparing instead the insurrection against British authority and were going to declare Ireland a free republic. MacNeill learned on Holy Thursday what was really going to happen on Easter and countermanded his call for a parade. Many of the Volunteers heeded his order, but those intent on revolution continued with the operation even though there numbers were considerably reduced.

After the events of Easter Sunday, the Irish Volunteers melted into history. The brutal treatment of the English to the Irish nationalists gave Sinn Fein control of Catholic Ireland. The name and organization continued for several more years but it was seen as a front for the IRB, Sinn Fein and the Citizen's Army.

Irish Way - A program of the Irish American Cultural Institute which sends American high school students to Ireland for a summer.

Irland - An early Norse term for Ireland referring to Ir and was the basis for the name, Ireland.

is - Gaelic for `and.'

Is fearr Gaelige Briste na Bearla Cliste - Gaelic for "Better broken Gaelic than clever English."

Iuvernia - Another Latin name for Ireland.

Ivernia - Another Latin name for Ireland.

Jacobite - A follower of James II after the Latin for James (Jacob). James was the second surviving son of Charles I, the King of England who lost his head to Cromwell's Parliamentarians. James lived in exile with his Catholic mother in France. He was a member of the French Army, participating in four campaigns and praised for his courage and ability. When his brother became Charles II at the Restoration, James was the Lord High Admiral and the Duke of York He led the English navy in several successful wars against the Dutch.

New York was named for him. James married a Protestant, Anne Hyde. His eldest daughter, Mary, married William of Orange in 1677. William and Mary College is named for them.

When James' wife died, he married a Catholic, Mary of Modena. There were several unsuccessful efforts to have him removed from the succession to the English crown. When he ascended the throne in 1685, James gave several Catholics high positions and appointments. A Papal Nuncio was officially accredited to his court. In 1687, James II issued the Declaration of Indulgence which suspended laws against Catholics and Dissenters.

When it was learned his wife gave birth to a son who would be raised Catholic, English leaders moved to raise another in his place.

They contacted his daughter's husband, William of Orange, who encouraged their actions. Seven of England's leaders signed a letter asking him to come to England. When William landed and James II's other daughter, Anne, aligned herself with William, many elements of the English army went over to William's banner.

James II declined to accept King Louis XIV's offer to defend his throne but did accept his hospitality and took his remaining family to France.

Jimmy - A term used in Ireland to describe a fool.

Justicar- a royal title equal to that of Deputy, which is given to those of royal blood on a royal mission or assignment.

Keen - A wailing lament at funerals from the Gaelic 'caoine.'

Keener - A person who keens. At one time women who had a talent for keening would rent their services to grieving families.

Kells - The name of an abbey where a book was beautifully illuminated with color, scrolls and artistic designs uniquely Celtic called The Book of Kells.

kern- from the Gaelic word 'ceitearach' a lightly armed soldier.

Kilkenny, Statues of - passed by the English Parliament in 1367 it was the most dramatic of a long line of legislative efforts to stop the propensity of the Normans and Anglo-Normans for things Irish. It outlawed among other things: Brehon Law, Gaelic, fostering, Irish music, Irish games, Irish culture, Irish trade and commerce, moustaches even the wearing of Irish hats.

kimmeens - sly tricks

kitchen canaries - another disparaging term for Irish female domestics.

Knights of Equity and Friendly Sons of St. Patrick- founded in 1895 this fraternal organization is restricted to Catholic Irish-Americans and supports Irish culture, the study of Irish history sports, and Gaelic language study.

Know Nothing Party - This anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic group that became a strong U. S. political party in the 1840's was officially known as the Order of the Star Spangled Banner. It was called this when its members were asked what it is their organization did and they answered "I know nothing."

Kurgans - A Russian term meaning `mound' that has been applied to the Scythian tribes who migrated to the Black Sea/Crimean area to form the North Pontic culture and these people then moved to the Trans Caucus area to form the TransCaucus Culture which in turn led to the IndoEuropean languages of which Celtic (Gaelic) was one.

LOCC - Lower Ormeau Concerned Community. Lower Ormeau is a small Catholic community in Belfast. The LOCC was organized in 1992 after the murder of five residents by the UFF. The organization made a video of the 1996 RUC and Orange Order violence during the marching season in their community. They use it to seek international observers to come to their community during Marching Season, as they have found having observers reduces the violence and yet still gives the observers enough to see to appreciate the taunting and threats that are annually directed at the small community.

Labor Party- Labor has been a force in Irish politics ever since the formation of trade unions. Their greatest strength has been when they were the glue that held a coalition together, otherwise they have always been a small party.

La Têne - The name given to the peak Celtic cultural period that began in about 500 B.C. from artifacts found at the site by the name in Switzerland.

Lace curtain Irish - Financially successful Irish Americans who pursued social recognition. They rose above the Fruit-on-the-table Irish who were mostly upper middle class to the upper class of American society. In doing so many, Irish Americans believed they forsook their Irish heritage. Some did but most,in fact, retained it and organized organizations among themselves. The rap was a bad one brought on by jealousy and the fact the Lace-Curtain-Irish were too busy in their social climbing to participate in labor and middle class Irish activities.

lais - Gaelic for `belonging to', `with.'

Land League - founded by Michael Davitt in 1879 for land reform such as halting evictions, lowering of rents and finding a way to allow tenants to purchase some of the land they tilled.

Land War - When tenants refused to have anything to do with their landlords, they boycotted them as a protest of high rents and other problems during the period 1879 - 1882. It led to land reform and removed many of the elements of the Plantation and Cromwellian Settlement that had for so long kept Irish land from the Irish.

LAOH - The Ladies auxiliary of the AOH.

Laudibiliter- a Papal Bull from the only English Pope, Pope Adrian IV. When Henry II petitioned the Pope for an overlordship of Ireland, Adrian IV granted it in the bull. This was done for two reasons, the Irish never supported the crusades as had other loyal Catholic peoples and Henry II's petition stated the Irish had fallen away from their religion, were low of morals, become corrupt and had little respect for the Faith.

Law and Orange Order- cynical Catholic term for the Protestant gerrymandering of boundaries done in Northern Ireland to keep Catholic neighborhoods from having any voter strength or representation.

lazy bed - A method of planting seed potatoes by simply dropping them to the ground and covering them with dirt.

leag lorgmhar - Gaelic for `precious stone.'

League of the Gaels- English for the Cumann na nGaedheal, the political party created in 1922 by Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith.

League of Youth- another name for the Blueshirts when they were outlawed.

Leinster House- located in Dublin, it is the seat of the Irish Government.

Leatha - Gaelic for Italy.

leis - Another Gaelic spelling for `belonging to', `with.'

leith brog - Gaelic for one shoemaker became the basis for the word Leprechaun.

Leprechaun - A fairy cobbler (shoemaker) noted for his pot o' gold.

Lia Fail- the "Stone of Destiny" brought to Ireland by the De Dannann. Ancient Irish kings were crowned at Tara while standing on this stone. It was taken to Scotland in the Sixth Century for the coronation of a Scottish king. The English stole the stone and placed it under their coronation chair in Westminster Abbey.

Liberator, the - The nick name of the famous Irish politician and orator, Daniel O'Connell and of South America's Bernado O'Higgins.

lifted- picked up by the police or British Army.

Little People- the wee folk, fairies like the leprecauns.

Limerick - A form of humorous verse of five lines, the first, second and fifth rhyme as do the third and fourth. It got its name from the county and town where they were popularized.

locative- a name of term derived from a geographical feature or place.

Long Kesh- another name for Maze prison.

Lord Lieutenant - The official name of the highest English administrator during most of the period of English administration.

Lottery - A U. S. immigration plan using a blind draw of applications for legal immigration when applicants exceeded available quotas.

Lough - Gaelic for lake.

Loyalist - A Unionist, one who wishes to maintain a tie between Northern Ireland and England.

Loyal National Appeal Association- formed by Daniel O'Connell in 1840 along the lines of his Catholic Association for Catholic Emancipation towork for repeal of the Act of Union.

Lump - An English term meaning a subcontracting system of at will workers rather than union workers.

lunulae- a delicate crescent shaped gold neck ornament popular in 2000-1500 BC. It was crafted in Ireland and found in several places on the continent.

Lynch - A term meaning to hang a person, from an Irishman by the name of Lynch who by virtue of his position as a judge had to pronounce hanging for a son.

Lynch Law - named for Colonel Charles Lynch a first generation Irish American who commanded irregular forces supporting the Continental Army during the American Revolution for his method of dealing with Loyalists, hanging without due process.

MP - Member of Parliament (England).

MRF- Military Reconnaissance Force (British Army)

M'anam Ie Dhia- Gaelic expression for "My soul to God."

Mac - Gaelic for son, later used in names as in MacBride and in the form M'Bride. Meaning son of Bride.

Machree - Gaelic for My Dear.

Mackeral Snapper - A U. S. military personnel term for Catholics who at one time ate fish on Fridays, as a form of fasting. Many mess halls and school cafeterias soon made fish the Friday entree as it was cheap and easy to prepare, but said they were accommodating Catholics.

Maidstone - A British prison ship.

Manchester Martyrs- Fenians, William Philip Allen, Michael Larkin and William O'Brien, who were arrested in 1867 after they participated in an attackon a police van carrying Fenians to jail. A guard, Sgt. Brett, was killed. The prisoners escaped, but the three rescuers were captured and executed. Parnell called them martyrs in 1876.

maol - Gaelic for bald or tonsured as is a monk.

Marca side - A fairy cavalcade.

Marching Season - July and August in Northern Ireland as the Orange Society and its many off shoots celebrate Protestant victories of William of Orange over the Catholic army of James II in Ireland in 1689 at: Derry, Carrickfergus, and The Boyne.

There are, during the season, over 3,000 separate Orange Marches in Ireland. The ones evoking the most attention are those that march through Catholic areas. The Catholics don't want the marches coming through because the marchers are not simply commemorating a great victory in history but take the opportunity to hurl insults, obscenities and anti-Catholic barbs, as well as sing anti-Catholic songs some of which no descent person should ever hear.

Many of these marches are led by clergy, the most active being the Presbyterian clergy. This is a curious irony. When the Battle of the Boyne was fought and won it was part of a European war that found William of Orange, the successful leader of the battle, and the Pope allied on the same side. The victory, then, was as much a success for the Pope as it was any of the allies that eventually became known as the Grand Alliance.

Presbyterian garnered nothing from the victory at the Boyne. In fact, for the next 100 years after it, Catholics and Presbyterian were persecuted in Ireland by an English government dominated by Anglicans who were antagonistic towards those who dissented from their religious view. This is underscored by the many Catholics and Presbyterian who left Ireland during this period for a better life in America or Continental Europe. Among the Presbyterian who remained in Ireland there emerged a revolt, led in 1798 by Wolfe Tone. That revolt was mostly a Presbyterian event. Wolfe Tone, a Protestant Irishman and a member of the Established Church, thought that many of the problems in Ireland were caused by the privies enjoyed by his faith. A young idealistic lawyer, he was impressed with the principles of liberty and justice that were successfully declared in the American and French Revolutions. He formed an organization called the Society of United Irishmen. It was to be made up of Catholics, Protestants and Dissenters. The Dissenters were those in the Established Church, who wished to fight for proportional and just representation for all of Ireland in a national Parliament. The Protestant were almost universally Presbyterians. They fought also to eradicate discrimination in the form of unfair penalties and disabilities based on account of religion. In quick order the oppressed Presbyterians flocked to the new organization and soon dominated it.

Catholics, too, were apart of the revolution as they were a part of the United Irishmen. It was during the Revolt of 1798 that Father Murphy and many a Catholic Wexford man fought at Enniscorthy and at Vinegar Hill. They became martyrs to the cause as pikes and pitchforks were no match for pistols and artillery. Protestant and Presbyterian leaders of the Revolt of '98 included Bagenal Harvey,

Henry Joy McCracken, Jemmy Hope, Henry Munro, Thomas Addis Emmet. Instead of life and liberty the United Irishmen received death, an English Army of ccupation and then Union with England.

The Tory clique in England and Ireland not wanting any dissenters thought it best to proceed with Union and hold at bay any thoughts from the American or French Revolution from changing they manner in which they governed Ireland. The Orange Order in Ireland vigorously worked against Union with England.

Something is historically askew when Presbyterian Irish take part in a parade often with their clergy leading it, which commemorates the start of 100 years of abuse they suffered at the hands of the English. That abuse was suffered over an even longer period by the Catholic Irish.

It is ironic, indeed, that the Irish Presbyterians take pride in a Popish victory, align themselves with their English abusers and use it to parade insults and obscenities at Irish Catholics with whom they were once united in an attempt to bring equality and justice to Ireland.

maros - Gaelic for `strong.'

Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Society- formed in 1855 to finance the return of immigrants to Ireland as freedom fighters. It was renamed the American Irish Aid Society and then became the Emmet Monument Association, all Fenian fronts.

Massagetae - A Scythian tribe of the Russian steppe said to be a progenitor of the Celt.

Mathair - Gaelic for `mother.'

Mavourneen - Gaelic for `my darling.'

Maze - The English prison at Long Kesh, Northern Ireland.

McBride Principles -nine fair hiring practices for Northern Ireland proposed by Nobel Peace winner Sean McBride.

merrows - Gaelic for `seamaid.'

mews - Living quarters made from stables, stables, the court or street that stables or former stables and now residences face, back street.

Mhuirathru - Gaelic expression from the older `Weirasthru' meaning "Mary have pity!"

MI5 - British military intelligence group which operates in U.K. now called DI 5.

MI6 - British military intelligence group which operates in foreign countries, now DI 6.

Mick - Derisive slang for Irishman

mihul- Gaelic for a gathering such as a picnic.

Milesians - One of the early peoples to settle Ireland, they fought the DeDannan for control of Ireland and won.

Military Reconnaissance Force (MRF) - Undercover British army unit that specializes in "dirty tricks."

miniugadh - Gaelic for `explanation.'

mod cons - Modern conveniences such as dishwashers, television, stereo etc.

Molly Maguires - Originally organized to protest forced tithes to the Anglican Church in Ireland and high rents.

a revival of an earlier movement in the coal-mining districts of Pennsylvania. Organized in about 1879 by members within the AOH to protest conditions in the mines. See A.O.H.

Monk, Maria - The principal in a widely read anti-Catholic pamphlet about babies being born and murdered in convents.

Mother and child scheme- a maternity care plan for the Republic of Ireland of 1951 that was opposed by the Catholic Church and quietly went away.

MRF - Military Reconnaissance Force (British Army).

muckers - A term applied to Irish laborers, see `Black Leg.'

muinter - Gaelic for `family.'

muir - Gaelic for `sea.'

Muir n Icht - Gaelic describing what is known as the English Channel.

Muir Torrian- Gaelic for the Mediterranean Sea.

mulvathered - Gaelic for `intoxicated.'

murther - Gaelic expression for "Great pity!."

Musha! - Gaelic expression for "Oh my!" or "Oh la!"

Muskerry- in Gaelic, Muscraidhe, an ancient territory that was in what is today northwest central County Cork.

 

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