NBINA-an acronym used in the mid to late 1800's and placed in newspaper employment ads and in windows of shops announcing an opening but that "No Blacks nor Irish Need Apply."

NICRA- Nrthern Ireland Civil Rights Association.

NINA- an acronym used in the late 1800's in employment ads and signs in shop windows meaning "No Irish Need Apply."

NORAID- Northern Aid Committee

na Geana Fiadhaine- Gaelic for "The Wild Geese."

Na bac leis - Gaelic expression meaning "Don't mind it."

na - Gaelic for `of' (the).

Narrowback - A term among the Irish for emigrants to America, a corruption of "ne'er be back."

National Center Party- Nationalist organization favoring a united Ireland that differs from republicans in that they renounce violence to achieve it.

National Graves Association- a group of men, usually associated with the IRA that cares for and are ready to defend a plot of graves outside of Belfast where most of the republican dead are buried.

National Guard- an Ulster Protestant paramilitary group originally called the Army Comrades Association and then the Blueshirts.

National League- founded in 1926 by Captain William Redmond, son of John Redmond. The organization was moderate and was in favor of conciliation with Ulster. They supported a constitutionally affirmed democratic Ireland.

National Volunteers - a nationalist paramilitary group formed in 1913 during debate over Home Rule. It is an offshoot of the IRB. See Irish Volunteers.

Nationalist Party- defeated in elections of 1780 and 1781, it became the party of Parnell and friends and was the largest Irish political party from 1878-1918. The party lost its strength when Sinn Fein came into power because of a failure of the Nationalists to achieve Home Rule. A new Nationalist Party was started in 1924. They wanted to use the Free State as a stepping stone to a republic.

nee - formerly called, also used to identify a married woman's maiden name.

Nemedians - An early people who lived on Ireland after the Parthalonians and before the Fir-Bolgs. The suffered great losses to a plague.

nemeton - Sacred place.

New Center Party- Organized by Frank McDermot in 1933 with former members of the Farmers Party and the Rate Payers League. They wanted to work within the British empire to effect a united Ireland.

New Ireland Group - Started by John Robb in 1982 for a negotiated independence for Northern Ireland so that both Irelands could work out their relationships with each other and Britain.

New Ireland Forum - Formed in 1983 by the Irish government and made up of the main political parties in the Republic and Northern Ireland, except Sinn Fein, and the SDLP of Northern Ireland to investigate using the democratic process for an everlasting peace.

New York Irish History Roundtable- founded in 1984 to promote study of Irish-American history.

no - Gaelic for `or.'

noble fish - the salmon.

noggin - a small wooden drinking container.

Normalization Policy - A euphemism by the British in March of 1976 to take away "Special Category Status" or political prisoner status that was granted to all British prisoners convicted of politically motivated offenses in Northern Ireland since 1972. Led to more active Diplock Courts, a beefed up the RUC, the use of H-Block at Long Kesh and the start of the Blanket Protest by the first person affected by the new policy, Kieran Nugent.

Normans - The name comes from Nortmann (Northmen) meaning a peoples of viking origin particularly Danish and Norwegian. They settled what is today the Normandy peninsula of France.. They retained their ability to fight defeating the British in the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and thereafter controlled England for many years. At the time of Henry II, the Normans were warrior lords who supported the Anglo-Norman king. When one of the petty kings of Ireland sought help from Henry II, he authorized his Norman lords to provide it. The Normans invaded Ireland for him in 1169. The Normans in Ireland became assimilated and became known as Anglo - Irish most changing their names to something more Irish thus the De Burghs became the Burkes and the De Angulo family became Costello (pronounced cost-til-low, with three syllables the last two said quickly).

Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association - founded in 1967 in Northern Ireland to seek equality in employment, housing and other areas in Northern Ireland not available to Catholics. Led demonstrations at Dungannon and Derry in 1967.

Northern Ireland Labor Party - A Northern Ireland trade union based party established in 1924. It endorsed continued ties with Britain.

Northern Ireland Office - British administration center in Stormont Castle.

Northern Ireland Executive- see Northern Ireland Alliance Party.

Northern Ireland Labor Party- a trade union party established in 1924 endorsing continued ties with Britain.

Nationalists - Irish people who want a united Ireland, generally are unlike republicans in that they want a negotiated rather than forced situation.

No Surrender - Motto of the Orange Society taken from the Apprentice Boys of Londonderry.

o bhfuilit - Gaelic for `from whom.'

O raiter an sloinneadh - Gaelic for `from whom, the surname.'

o'enach - Gaelic for General Assembly of the People.

Oak Boys - Organized in 1763 to protest for English reform of the occupation of Ireland.

Oath of Allegiance - often referred to as "the oath', a pledge of fealty to the King of England. Required before you could own land, receive a coat of arms and other state/royally granted privileges, provided you weren't Catholic.

O bhfuilit- Gaelic for "from women.'

ocus - Gaelic for `and.'

oesdana - name for a master craftsman.

O'Failghe - Gaelic for Offaly.

Official IRA - See Irish Republican Army.

offuil - Gaelic for `whom.'

og - Gaelic for `young.'

Ogham - A type of ancient Gaelic writing used from about the Fifth Century.

Oglaigh h'Eireann - Gaelic for the IRA.

oigh - Gaelic for `maid.'

oireachetas- Gaelic for 'parliament.'

Operation Harvest- an unsuccessful IRA operation which called for a Catholic uprising in Ulster in December of 1956

oppida - Latin for a fortified city.

oppidum - Plural of above.

Orange - Someone in Ireland is considered Orange if they are Protestant or if they support continued ties with England. From William of Orange leader of the Protestant army deployed against the Catholic army of James II.

Orange Marches - There are, during the season, over 3,000 separate Orange Marches in Ireland. The ones evoking the most attention are those that march through Catholic areas. The Catholics don't want the marches coming through because the marchers are not simply commemorating a great victory in history but take the opportunity to hurl insults, obscenities and anti-Catholic barbs, as well as singing anti-Catholic songs some of which no descent person should ever hear.

Many of these marches are led by clergy, the most active being the Presbyterian clergy. This is a curious irony. When the Battle of the Boyne was fought and won it was part of a European war that found William of Orange, the successful leader of the battle, and the Pope allied on the same side. The victory, then, was as much a success for the Pope as it was any of the allies that eventually became known as the Grand Alliance.

Presbyterian garnered nothing from the victory at the Boyne. In fact, for the next 100 years after it Catholics and Presbyterian were persecuted in Ireland by an English government dominated by Anglicans who were antagonistic towards those who dissented from their religious view. This is underscored by the many Catholics and Presbyterian who left Ireland during this period for a better life in America or Continental Europe. Among the Presbyterian who remained in Ireland there emerged a revolt, led in 1798 by Wolfe Tone.

That revolt was mostly a Presbyterian event. Wolfe Tone, a Protestant Irishman and a member of the Established Church, thought that many of the problems in Ireland were caused by the privies enjoyed by his faith. A young idealistic lawyer, he was impressed with the principles of liberty and justice that were successfully declared in the American and French Revolutions. He formed an organization called the Society of United Irishmen which was to be made up of Catholics and Dissenters, including those in the Established Church, who wished to fight for proportional and just representation for all of Ireland in a national Parliament and eradicate unfair penalties and disabilities on account of religion.

Catholics, too, were apart of the revolution as they were a part of the United Irishmen. It was during the Revolt of 1798 that Father Murphy and many a Wexford man fought at Enniscorthy and Wexford at Vinegar Hill. They became martyrs to the cause as pikes and pitchforks were no match for pistols and artillery. Protestant and Presbyterian leaders included Bagenal Harvey, Henry Joy McCracken, Jemmy Hope, Henry Munro, Thomas Addis Emmet. Instead of life and liberty the United Irishmen recieved death an English Army of occupation and then Union with England. The Orange Order in Ireland vigorously worked against Union with England in 1799. The Tory clique in England and Ireland not wanting any dissenters thought it best to proceed with Union and hold at bay any thoughts from the American or French Revolution from changing they manner in which they governed Ireland.

Something is amiss when Presbyterian Irish take part in a parade often with their clergy leading it, which commemorates the start of 100 years of abuse suffered at the hands of the English. That abuse was suffered over an even longer period by the Catholic Irish. It is ironic, indeed, that the Irish Presbyterians take pride in a Popish victory and align themselves with their English abusers and use it to parade insults and obscenities at Irish Catholics with whom they were once united in an attempt to bring equality and justice to Ireland who had to endure that abuse for another 100 years.

Orange Order - Established the evening of the Battle of the Diamond in the Village of Loughgall, County Armagh to "exterminate all the Catholics of the Kingdom of Ireland." The word `exterminate' was later repudiated and it was allowed the Catholics could go "to Hell or Connacht."

Orangemen - Members of the Orange Order or people who believe in continued ties with Great Britain for Northern Ireland.

Order of the Star Spangled Banner - The official name of the anti-Catholic, anti-immigrant Know Nothing Party of the mid to late 1800's.

ordered - A dispensation of Providence.

Oriel- in Gaelic, 'Orghialla', an ancient territory located where the counties of Armagh, Monaghan and south Down, south Louth are today.

Ormond - An earldom in Ireland held by the Butler family.

Ossian - Another ancient name for Ireland.

An ancient Irish bard and warrior who wrote Fingal and Temora.

Ossory- from the Gaelic Osraighe, an ancient kingdom located where County Kilkenny is today.

ota - Gaelic for `from.'

otaid - Gaelic for `from.'

otaitt - Gaelic for `from.'

Ould Sod - Refers to Ireland.

P.E.I. - Prince Edward Island in Canada.

Packets - Small American sailing ships and then steamers who maintained regular schedules usually of passengers and some cargo.

Paddies - Irishmen.

Paddys - Irishmen.

Paddy Wagon - Term used in Boston and then New York and most of New England referring to a police vehicle used to carry several persons. At a time in the history of each city most of the passengers would have been Irish.

Pale - Area in Ireland controlled by English force of arms before all Ireland was subdued.

Papered - Late in the year 1795 and thereafter, the Orange Society would post notices on Catholic homes or places of business telling them to leave, or in the case of employers telling them to let the Catholics go. Those places thus "papered" who did not comply were destroyed by armed Orangemen.

Papists - Catholics, believers in the Pope.

pampered pet- disparaging term for Northern Ireland.

paruchia- Gaelic for 'parish.'

Partholanians - A people of early Ireland, followers of Parthalon. They suffered a great plague that wiped them out.

Partition - The division of Ireland's 32 counties to 26 for the Free State and 6 for Northern Ireland.

Partridge Island - An immigrant clearing station at the St. John harbor in New Brunswick, Canada.

The first Irish were on Saint John, New Brunswick as early as 1750. By 1871, 55% of the population was Irish and thus the importance of Partridge Island in their lives. Many early civic, religious and commercial leaders in St. John were Irish born.

passage - sailing as a passenger on a ship, as in booking passage aboard the ship, the trip itself was also called the term.

passage graves- the ashes of the dead were placed in burial chambers at the end of a long passage through a man-made hill constructed of about 4,000 tons of stone.

Pat - A reference to an Irishman.

pattern- a celebration, in the home, for a patron saint.

patronymic- a name derived from a given person.

Patriots- though the name applies to many Irish heroes, it is especially used in describing Henry Flood, Henry Gratton, Wolfe Tone and Robert Emmet.

All were Protestants who worked for Irish rights against the English administration.

Patriot Parliament- the Irish parliament called by James II when he was in Ireland in 1689, made up mostly of Catholics.

Paudeen baun - Gaelic for "fair little Paddy."

Peace line - steel and concrete barriers through West Belfast separating Catholic and Protestant neighbors.

Peace People - A group formed in 1976 for the promotion of a peaceful solution for Northern Ireland. Since it would not tolerate violence as an alternate means, republicans and many nationalists would not support it.

peat - A piece of turf from a bog, dried and used as fuel.

peat bank - A place from which peat is cut.

Peep O'Day Boys - Fanatical Protestant gang that would raid Catholic houses at dawn for arms.

Penal Laws - English laws meant to deprive Catholics of civil life, reduce them to extreme ignorance and, dissociate them from the land. These brutal acts where passed after the Treaty of Limerick (1689) which guaranteed Catholics any further oppression because of their religion and remained in effect for nearly a century.

Under these laws and those re-enacted from earlier times an Irish Catholic was forbidden to:

Receive an education

Enter a profession

Hold public office

Engage in trade & commerce

Live in a corporate town

Or within five miles of one

Own a horse worth 5 Pds

Purchase land

Lease land

To vote

Keep arms

Hold a life annuity

Buy Protestant land

Receive a Protestant gift

Inherit Protestant land

Rent certain lands

Be a child's guardian

Place his children in Catholic guardianship

Attend Catholic worship

Not attend Protestant worship

Educate his child

and many more

People's Democracy - A student civil rights based organization formed in 1968 by students and ex-students from Queen's University in reaction to the brutality shown the NICRA marches on television. The initial leaders were Bernadette Devlin, John D. Murphy and Michael Farrell. It later it became an extreme left organization.

People's Party- Clann Eirann, a small party organized in 1926 to oppose partition. It was led by a Professor Mageniss

phillelew - Gaelic for `outcry.'

Phoenix Clubs- officially they were called the Phoenix National Literary Society. They were founded in 1858 by Jerry O'Donovan and James Stephens and were a front for the IRB and Fenians.

Pictland - Scotland.

Picts - A pre-Celtic or early Celtic tribe in England, Ireland and Scotland. Later they were pushed to only Scotland, the Orkneys and Hebrides.

pinkeen - Gaelic for a `minnow.'

Pioneer - Originally a member of the Pioneer Total Abstinence Association, later anyone who did not drink intoxicating beverages.

pishogues - Fairy spells

Pitch - cap - Boiling pitch (tar) was poured into a basin and then clamped over an Irishman's head; when it cooled, the basin was pulled off, the subjects hair, scalp and ears came with it.

Plantation - the "planting' or colonization of Ireland with people from outside Ireland loyal to England. Begun in 1560 by Queen Elizabeth I.

playing at trunk loo - When runners for particular boarding houses would meet immigrant carrying ships and steal an immigrant's trunk or luggage forcing them to follow to the boarding house.

pledge- an oath to abstain from intoxicating drink.

Plough and Stars - The emblem of the Irish Citizen Army.

Poblacht na h-Eireann - Gaelic for `Republic of Erin.'

Pogrom, The- Catholic term for the events in Northern Ireland in April and August, 1969 making reference to the decidedly anti-Catholic and pro-Protestant activities of the Northern Ireland government and its police and then the British army.

poitin - Gaelic, pronounced "potecheen" means liquor especially homebrew.

Political Chowder - A political outing, gathering or rally usually in the summer.

Pooka - An animal spirit from the Gaelic word púca.

Poynings Law - Named after Edward Poyning deputy to Henry VII, it stated that no law can be made for Ireland without consent of the King of England.

Poor Law Union - See Union.

Popery - Catholicism

Popish - Catholic

Pot Wallopers - Derogatory term for female Irish kitchen help.

poteen - Liquor

potcheen - Liquor

pratie picker - Irish potato harvesters working in Scotland.

Prods - Irreverent term for Protestant.

Progressive Unionist Party - Political arm of the Ulster Volunteer Force.

Project Children - a program of the Gaelic Cultural Society established in 1976 to bring Catholic and Protestant children from Northern Ireland over to the U. S. to spend a summer.

Protestant - pronounced protest - tant, a derogatory word for Protestant.

Protestant Ascendancy- the rise of, and the Protestant control of Ireland. It is tied directly to the increased control of Ireland by the English.

The Irish were predominately Catholic and controlled most of the land in Ireland up to the time of Henry VIII. The English wished to assimilate the Irish into the English system which had traditionally also been Catholic.

Though the Pope had rewarded Henry VIII with the title of "Defender of the Faith" in 1521 for his defense of the church against Martin Luther, Henry VIII, in 1530 became a Protestant in order to provide himself a male heir (he was married to a woman who could not give him an heir) and to obtain funds (by seizing church property).

He established the Church of England in an attempt to 'reform' the Catholic Church in England and in Ireland he established the Church of Ireland. He made himself head of both churches. He allowed himself to divorce and remarry and began to seize the considerable property of the Catholic Church in England and Ireland to finance a planned war on the continent.

After his death, the teachings of Zwingli, Calvin and Knox had given Protestantism a fervor. The British held on to their Protestant faith and struck out and things and people Catholic.

This fomented against the Irish, who insisted on being Catholic and loyal to the Pope.

There was a move to exterminate the Popish Irish. It swelled at the time of Cromwell and was at its peak after the victory of William of Orange at the Boyne.

By 1703, Catholics owned only 14% of the land in Ireland, Protestants had ascended to complete control of the mostly Catholic island.

Provisional Government of Ulster - organized by militant Protestants in 1913 to take over administration of northern Ireland if Home rule were to pass.

Provisional IRA - Split from the IRA when it accepted partition in 1970. See Irish Republican Army.

Also differed from the mainline IRA as to the first priority of the IRA in Belfast, the group was heavily weighted with Northern Irish members of the IRA.

They saw the defense of the vulnerable Catholic neighborhoods that were surrounded by Protestant majorities as a mission ahead of the unification of Ireland.

Provisionals - Another name for the Provisional IRA.

Provos - Slang name for the Provisional IRA.

Publications, Irish in America:

Irish-American by Robert Clarke and David Roche in 1952 in Philadelphia.

The Shamrock, New York in 1810 by Thomas O'Connor, a United Irishman.

Truth Teller, New York in 1825.

Celtic Monthly, New York edited by James Haltigan.

Boston Pilot, in Boston owned and edited by John Boyle O'Reilly. Still extant though not as Irish.

The Citizen, edited by John Mitchell in 1854.

Gaelic American, founded in 1900 by John Devoy in New York City to support Clan na-Gael.

Irish World, founded in 1870 by Patrick Ford. Absorbed the Gaelic American and still extant.

Irish American Alamanac, just prior to end of the ninteenth century.

The Irish Advocate, in New York at the end of ninteenth century, stll extant.

The Leader, in San Francisco started as a working man's paper in the 1880's and turned facist by the 1940's.

Irish Echo, began in 1928 and still extant.

Boston Irish News, 1976 in Boston.

Irish American, 1976 in Chicago, still extant.

The Irish Edition, Philadelphia in 1980.

The Irishman Newspaper, by Niall O' Dowd in San Francisco.

Callahan's Irish Quarterly, 1982

Irish America Magazine, began in 1985 in New York for Irish-American issues

The Irish-American Almanac & Green Pages, 1986 by Brian Cooper.

The Irish Herald, San Francisco.

The Irish Star, Boston.

Boston Irish News, Boston.

The National Hibernian Digest, published by AOH in America.

The Shamrock, Kansas City by Sean Hillen.

Ireland of the Welcomes, a magazine published in Boulder, Colorado

The Guardian, San Antonio, Texas

The Ceili, Dallas, Texas

An Nuaideact, Springfield, Virginia. Publication of the Gaelic League of Washington D. C.

The All-Ireland Heritage, a genealogical quarterly published from Vienna, VA edited by Donna Hotaling.

An Droichead/ The Bridge, 1986 in New York, a magazine for the study of Gaelic.

An Gael, in New York, devoted to the perpetuation of Irish culture in America.

Adrift, A New York semi-annual journal publishing original works of Irish and Irish-American poets and writers.

Ducas, newsletter of the Irish American Cultural Institute.

Eire-Ireland, Scholarly journal of Irish American Cultural Institute.

Folk Harp Journal, from Mt. Laguna, California, a quarterly journal of Irish and Celtic music.

Irish Literary Supplement, edited by Robert Lowery in Selden, New York and published bi-annually, literary criticism of Irish and

Irish-American works.

Irish Studies, published by Cambridge University Press in New York City and annual publication sharing research articles on Ireland.

James Joyce Quarterly, from the University of Oklahoma offers critical essays on Joyce and other Irish writers.

Journal Of Irish Literature, published irregularly from Newark, Delaware, it has drama, poetry, fiction, reviews, criticism and bibliographies.

American Committee For Irish Studies, a list of about 1,200 names of people interested in things Irish.

Púca - Gaelic for the name of an animal spirit.

pull foot - to hurry.

quality - Upper class, as in "they were quality people."

RC- Roman Catholic

RIC - Royal Irish Constabulary

RTE- Radio Telifis Eireann, the Irish Republic government run broadcast system.

Races of Castlebar - When the French landed in 1798 and started toward Castlebar, how fast the English and tory soldiers and administrators could fly to safety.

Raidió na Gaeltacha - Broadcasts in Gaelic, since in 1972.

raimeas - Gaelic for `nonsense.'

Rapparees - The ragged irregular militia force that fought the guerrilla war against William of Orange's forces after the Battle of the Boyne, stood with Sarsfield at Limerick and continued the fight even after Limerick.

rath - Gaelic for a `fort' and later for a sheepfold (using the old fort walls) and still later as any old foundation.

réamhráite - Gaelic for `aforesaid.'

reamrait - Another Gaelic spelling for `aforesaid.'

reaòmeis - Gaelic for `blarney', 'nonsense'see raimeas above.

Rebel Cork Benevolent Association - founded in 1883 in San Francisco to help fellow Irish emigrants.

recusansy - The refusal of Irish Catholics (or anyone else), under the English administration, to attend the service of the Church of England constituting a statutory offense punishable by fines and disabilities under the Penal Laws until the 18th century.

Red Branch Knights - Ancient warrior organization of Ulster, the term `Red Branch' is now used in a number of Protestant paramilitary groups in Ulster. One of which follows.

Red Hand Commandos - A Loyalist, Unionist sectarian paramilitary group which emerged in 1972 and was quickly banned in 1973.

remand - To hold in detention, often in a prison, awaiting trial.

Repealers - people working to repeal the Act of Union.

Republic of Ireland - formally proclaimed April 18, 1949.

republicans - People who support a united Ireland and, more than people called nationalists, are willing to use violence to obtain it.

Republican Clubs, The Workers' Party - represents the pacifist view of the Official IRA.

ri - Gaelic for `king.'

Ribbonism - support for Ribbonmen.

Ribbonmen - the name of another group in Ireland working for agrarian reform in the late 1790s. They also evolved, like the Defenders, into protecting Catholics. Also connected to the A.O.H.

The name used as a cover for AOH organizations in the eighteenth and nineteenth century.

right hander - An American military term for Catholics because of their crossing them selves with their right hand when they do the Sign of the Cross.

Rockites - marauding Irish rebels who fought the British 1821 - 1822. They posted many notices and signed them "Captain Rock."

Roe- ancient Gaelic for 'red.'

Roisin Dubh - Gaelic for little dark rose, a metaphor for Ireland when mention of the word was forbidden.

Round Tower - A tall, round, stone defensive structure whose only entrance was many feet above ground and when threatened the inhabitants would pull the ladder leading to it. Many were built to protect village and monastery inhabitants from the Vikings.

Royal Black Institution- a senior group of the Orange Order.

Royal Irish Constbulary (RIC) - Organized in 1922 (Black and Tans)to replace the Irish Constabulary as the official police force in Northern Ireland. It is dominated by paramilitary Protestant Unionists.

rua - Gaelic for `red.'

ruadh - Gaelic for `red.'

Rum, Romanism and Rebellion - An anti-Catholic phrase originated by a Protestant clergyman in support of James G. Blaine's U. S. presidential campaign in 1884. Many historians credit it with the failure of Blaine to be elected because of Catholic voter reaction despite the fact that Blaine had a Catholic mother and a cousin who was a nun.

runners - men who met ships at dockside that were carrying immigrants. They would steer the immigrants to particular boarding houses they represented often by treachery or force. Most were fellow Irishmen.

rhythm method - Name given to a Catholic method of birth control by abstaining from sex during the ovulation cycle.

SAS- Special Air Service, a unit of the British Army set up during WWII for undercover operations. In Ireland they have operated the Military Reconnaissance Force.

SDLP- Social Democratic and Labor Party

saer- Gaelic for 'carpenter.'

saoirse - Gaelic for `freedom.'

Saor Eire - Gaelic for "Free Ireland" and the name of a communist and anti-clerical group in 1933.

Saint Patrick's Society - A fraternal, Irish Catholic organization active in the years after the Civil War.

saracens- British Army armored cars.

Sassenach - Gaelic for `enemy', sometimes used in place of British, Catholic or Protestant depending on where the Gaelic speaker was from.

Sciamhach -Gaelic for `elegant',`beautiful' or `handsome.'

Scarman Tribunal- a judicial tribunal inquiry led by High Court Judge Sir Lesley Scarman and appointed by the British government to investigate the events of April-August, 1969 in Northern Ireland.

Scotch-Irish - An American term invented by Protestant, mostly Presbyterian, immigrants from Ireland. They were once descended from Scottish emigrants to Ireland, usually Ulster, some of their families lived in Ireland hundreds of years before they or a predecessor left for America.

They invented the term to separate themselves from the Catholic Irish that arrived in great numbers after them and formed a great labor pool years after they had pulled themselves (many merchants began immediately in a better position) up from the lower levels of American society and were firmly in the middle class or better. These Ulster Irish, a better term, had already begun to develop political power as a group and did not wish to lose it because of the general American public's tendency to group ethnic peoples together.

Scotia - Roman term, and others, for Ireland. Named for Scotia or Scota an Egyptian Pharaoh's daughter who married Niul a predecessor of Melisius of Miled whose wife was also a Pharaoh's daughter named Scota. Milisius was the progenitor of the Melisians. Scotland was called Alba and later New Scotia. When Ireland became known as Hibernia, Scotland became Scotia which eventually became Scotland.

Scots-Irish - See Scotch Irish above.

Scrubs - for Wormwood Scrubs a London prison.

seadh go deimhin - Gaelic expression for "Yes, indeed!"

Sean McBride Principles - See Mcbride Prinicples.

Sean Ghalls - Gaelic for `old foreigners' at different times applied to the Normans, Norman-Irish and the English,

Anglo-Irish who stayed in Ireland.

Sean - Gaelic for John or `old' an older Gaelic version is Shane.

Seanachie - Gaelic for , oral historian or storyteller.

Seanchaidhe - Historian.

Seanchas - Gaelic for `history' or `lore.'

SeanFHocal - Gaelic for `Irish proverb.'

Seanead - The upper house of the two chamber parliament of the Irish Free State. It could only delay legislation passed by the lower house (Diall)).

Secret Service - See DI 6

Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) - See DI 6

Self-determination - A phrase from the President Woodrow Wilson era when he was campaigning for the League of Nations and wanting to set up countries based on self-determination. The Irish supported Wilson and the concept thinking he would support their self-determination to be a united country. Wilson disappointed the Irish and Irish Americans by accepting the British position in the matter. He even attacked Irish - Americans for their hyphen (see hyphenism), it is odd his policy has a hyphen in it.

senchus - Another spelling of the Gaelic for `history' or `lore.'

Senchus Mor- a body of ancient Irish law collected by Saint Patrick.

septs - A branch of a family. In ancient Ireland particularly of a flaith, an Irish chief.

servitors - Irish and Scottish military veterans who had served with England and given land grants in Ulster in 1609.

sgeuladoirs - Gaelic for `storytellers.'

Shadow Government- during the period 1920-1921, after Sinn Fein had won big at the elections of 1918 and 1919 but before there was to have been any formal turn over of offices the Sinn Fein set up courts and sent legislation through the Irish Dail with the irish people's acceptance.

This despite the fact that there was a government over Ireland, the British, still in place.

Shanavests - another 1790s group organized to protest rents and tithes.

Shankhill- a very large Protestant area of Belfast..

Shankhill Defence Association- a Protestant group formed to protect the Orange Order marchers as they leave and re-enter Shankhill.

shanks mare - Walking, using one's legs for transportation.

shanty - From the Gaelic sean tig for a crudely, rickety built cabin.

Shamrocks and Bluebonnets- Texas based program which brings a Catholic and a Protestant child from Northern Ireland at risk zones and places them together for a summer in Texas family's home.

Shankill - A Protestant section of Belfast.

sharoote - Gaelic for `displeased.'

shaughran - Gaelic for a rascal or rogue.

shaugram - Same as above.

sheagh sidh - Fairy host.

sheogues - Gaelic for spirits of the rath.

shillelagh - A wooden club, usually made from a blackthorn bush or oak tree from a place in County Wicklow where they were first made.

Shorlands- armored cars of the RUC armed with twin .30 caliber machine guns. Built in violation of a treaty with The Republic of Ireland.

Short hairs- a Tammany Hall (New York) expression for the working class.

sidheóg - Gaelic for fairy.

sil - Gaelic for descendants.

sin - Gaelic for there or here.

Sinn Fein - Gaelic for "Ourselves Alone". Originally founded by Arthur Giffith in 1905 to support a "dual monarchy" for England and Ireland similar to that of Hungary and Austria. It then became something of an umbrella organization to bring constitutional and republican nationalists together.

After British executions in 1916, it became republican dominated. It is considered by most Irish to be the political arm of the IRA. Today (1998) it is led by Gerry Adams. The more moderate IRA called the Official IRA has a political arm once called Sinn Fein - the Workers' Party but is now called simply the Workers Party.

siol - Gaelic for descendants.

Six Counties - The territory partitioned by the British in what is called Ulster.

sláinte - Irish drinking toast making reference to good health.

sleireen - Gaelic for rogue.

Sliabh E alpa - Gaelic for the Alps.

sliding coffins - during the Irish Hunger period of 1845 - 1850, also called the Great Starvation, so many people died in such a short time, it was not possible to build enough coffins. Money, wood, strength to build coffins and dig the graves were not to be had. A single coffin with a hinged bottom or side were used in hundreds of burials over mass grave sites.

sliocht - Gaelic for escendants.

slionne - Gaelic for surname.

smidireen - Gaelic for small piece, diminutive for smoider - small fragment.

smithereens - small pieces from smoider.

Social Democratic and Labor Party (SDLP) - Formed in 1970, it is a socialist organization and is dedicated to unity by consent of the majority of the North.

Society for the Relief of Emigrants from Ireland - founded 1793 in Philadelphia by Mathew Carey and others to help Irish immigrants.

Society of United Irishmen - worked against British rule of Ireland. A revolutionary uprising caused by their efforts erupted in Ireland in 1798 and was quickly brought down sending many of the leaders not caught to escape to America with their passion and zeal still intact for a free Ireland.

Sod, Oulde- Ireland

Sod, Trembling- Ireland

Southsiders - A Dubliner term referring to the moneyed population of South Dublin.

spalpeen - Gaelic for a contemptible person.

Special Branch- the intelligence division of the RUC, recruits and runs informers.

Special category prisoner - A political prisoner.

Special Powers Act- a draconian act of the Northern Ireland Parliament in 1922, re-enacted every year until 1933 when it was made a permanent act, supporting Protestant rule by allowing indefinite internment, suspension of habeas corpus, freedom of the press, arrest on suspicion, search of people or property without a warrant, reverses the burden of proof from the state to the individual and withholding of inquests for any dead bodies found in Northern Ireland.

Stage Irish - A caricature of the Irish portrayed on the stage and screen showing them as always ready to drink and fight; as song and dance men; or as the Irish woman with a twinkle in their eye and earthy, but sage advice. Barry Fitzgerald comes to mind in film and Harrigan and Hart come to mind on stage.

Starry Plough- the flag of Irish Citizen Army.

Steel Boys - Organized in 1763 to protest for reform of the English government of Ireland.

steerage - A passenger classification of persons boarding ship in a large hold area below decks. They were to provide their own food, cooking, eating utensils and bedding.

stichin your wig - A euphemism for getting intoxicated.

stirabout - Gaelic for `porridge.'

Stormont - Stormont Castle located in Belfast and is the place from which the British ruled Northern Ireland. Now houses the Northern Ireland Parliament and the British Office.

stout boy - A man in his prime.

Stout - what Guinness calls its heavily-bodied brew that is darker than porter. It is made with roasted malt and a high percentage of hops.

stravaig - Gaelic for `to ramble.'

Strip searching - a policy started in 1982 at Armagh Prison where women are periodically searched in a manner "the moral equivalent of rape

." All orifices of the body are hand searched of female prisoners and visitors. It was used to harass, intimidate, humiliate and degrade female political prisoners and their supporters.

stróinse - Gaelic for `a lazy thing.'

Strongbow - A nickname for Richard FitzGilbert de Clare, Earl of Pembroke, a Norman who was a lord in Henry II's court.

Dermot MacMurrough offered Pembroke his daughter in marriage and thereby succession to the Kingdom of Leinster and some gold to come to Ireland with his army and take his side in an internal dispute . His daughter nor the kingdom were his to give, nevertheless, Pembroke came in 1169 leading the Norman invasion of Ireland for England.

Sunningdale Agreements - An alliance begun in 1972 of unionist groups to form a power sharing executive.

Supremacy Act- the act of Henry VIII had passed making him the King of Ireland (previously the King of England was called the Lord of Ireland) and the Supreme Head of the Protest religion.

Swaddlers - Methodists

Swallow tails - a Tammany Hall (New York) expression for wealthy people.

Sweeps - See Irish Sweepstakes

synod- a gathering of clerics.

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