My Moran Family DNA Analysis And Maybe Yours?

(at least to some point in time)

I am still working on some of the graphics for this section, but decided to post what I had for those interested, to read.


Two of my children, Shannon and Sean teamed to compliment my genealogy research by funding a DNA analysis. The analysis was conducted under the National Geographic Genographic Project (Geno 2.0). The results are in and they take my predecessors back 180,000 years to East Africa on my Maternal side and to South Africa approximately 140,000 years ago on my paternal side. It is all done through the analysis of our DNA.

Y chromosome DNA, passed from father to son, and mitochondrial DNA, passed from mother to daughter, are varied through the generations only by occasional natural mutations called markers. These mutations, occurring in an otherwise continuous string of genetic replication, serve as genetic signposts for tracing human evolution. By following a marker back through time to its origin, geneticists can identify the most recent common ancestor of everyone alive who carries a given marker. The divergent branches of the human family tree, represented by groups carrying a given marker, can be followed back to “nodes” on the tree where a mutation split a branch into two directions. Eventually these branches can be followed backward all the way to a common African root—a common ancestor

Continuing with the maternal side, our ancestors moved up the East coast of Africa to the Sinai Peninsula and on in to West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea about 25,000 years ago. This correlates with my research that showed the Scythian/Massegetae connection.

The Paternal side also moved from South Africa to East Africa and thence to the Sinai and the Levant. The Levant, also known as the Eastern Mediterranean, is a geographic and cultural region consisting of the "eastern Mediterranean littoral between Anotolia and Egypt. The Levant today consists of Cyprus, Israel, Jordon, Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, and part of southern Turkey (the former Aleppo Vilayer). It is part of a larger region known as the Fertile Crescent.

Precise definitions have varied over time, and the term originally had a broader and less well-defined usage. The Levant has been described as the "crossroads of western Asia, the eastern Mediterranean and northeast Africa).

From the Levant our ancestors moved to Central Asia. This further ties our heritage to the nomadic tribes that wandered from Central to East Asia (Scythians/Massegetae).

The maternal ancestors migrated over the Caucus Mountains in the area of the where the Republic of Georgia is now. The Paternal ancestors did likewise but here is where there paths change. The Maternal ancestors next migrated into the Balkans and then to Belarus while the Paternal ancestors went North to Russia at a much more northern latitude than the Maternal ancestors and from there to Northeast Europe which would allow for the Belgian connection.

Meanwhile the Maternal ancestors took a trek into France, then South to Italy and further South to Spain and Portugal.

The Paternal ancestors also next went South through France and then Iberia. Both groups were forced South by the glaciers of the Ice Age.

From Iberia the Maternal ancestors went to Ireland, while the Paternal ancestors first went to England before ending up in Ireland.

The people today that we are closest to, in percentage of DNA make up, include Ireland, the United Kingdom and Germany. The next closest in percentage of DNA, are located in Brittany, Normandy and Sweden. These areas’ ancestors represent the earliest settlers in Europe, hunter-gatherers who arrived more than 35,000 years ago following the routes shown by my Maternal and Paternal ancestors. For more information on the Moran DNA analysis click the link >


For those of wanting a more technical analysis of the DNA results, the following is offered with accompanying maps from the Genographic Project.

Each segment on the maps represents the migratory path of successive groups that eventually coalesced to form our branch of the tree. We start with the marker for our oldest ancestor, and walk forward to more recent times, showing at each step the line of our ancestors who lived up to that point. The Green paths were made by me to show the probable path of our ancestors based on the location of the next marker indentified as from our ancestor.

What is a marker? Each of us carries DNA that is a combination of genes passed from both our mother and father, giving us traits that range from eye color and height to athleticism and disease susceptibility. As part of this process, the Y-chromosome is passed directly from father to son, unchanged, from generation to generation down a purely male line. Mitochondrial DNA, on the other hand, is passed from mothers to their children, but only their daughters pass it on to the next generation. It traces a purely maternal line.

The DNA is passed on unchanged, unless a mutation - a random, naturally occurring, usually harmless change-occurs. The mutation, known as a marker, acts as a beacon; it can be mapped through generations because it will be passed down for thousands of years

When geneticists identify such a marker, they try to figure out when it first occurred, and in which geographic region of the world. Each marker is essentially the beginning of a new lineage on the family tree of the human race. Tracking the lineages provides a picture of how small tribes of modern humans in Africa tens of thousands of years ago diversified and spread to populate the world.
By looking at the markers we carry, we can trace our lineage, ancestor by ancestor, to reveal the path they traveled as they moved out of Africa. Our story begins with our earliest ancestors. Who were they, where did they live ?

Our Maternal Halpolog Group root is is H3g4.

The common direct maternal ancestor to all women alive today was born in East Africa around 180,000 years ago. Dubbed "Mitochondrial Eve" by the popular press, she represents the root of the human family tree. Eve gave rise to t The first known branch, hapolog group L1'2'3'4'5'6

Two descendant lineages known as L0 and L1'2'3'4'5'6, characterized by a different set of genetic mutations their members carry. Current genetic data indicates that indigenous people belonging to these groups are found exclusively in Africa. This means that, because all humans have a common female ancestor, and because the genetic data shows that Africans are the oldest groups on the planet, we know our species originated there.

Hapolog Group L3

Eventually, L1'2'3'4'5'6 gave rise to L3 in East Africa. It is a similar story: an individual underwent a mutation to her mitochondrial DNA, which was passed onto her children. The children were successful, and their descendants ultimately broke away from L1'2'3'4'5'6, eventually separating into a new group called L3 about 67,000 years ago.

While L3 individuals are found all over Africa, L3 is important for its movements north. Your L3 ancestors were significant because they are the first modern humans to have left Africa, representing the deepest branches of the tree found outside of that continent.

From there, members of this group went in a few different directions. Many stayed on in Africa, dispersing to the west and south. Some L3 lineages are predominant in many Bantu-speaking groups who originated in west-central Africa, later dispersing throughout the continent and spreading this L3 lineage from Mali to South Africa. Today, L3 is also found in many African-Americans.
Other L3 individuals, our ancestors, kept moving northward, eventually leaving the African continent completely. These people gave rise to two important macro-haplogroups (M and N) that went on to populate the rest of the world.

Why would humans have first ventured out of the familiar African hunting grounds and into unexplored lands? It is likely that a fluctuation in climate may have provided the impetus for our ancestors' exodus out of Africa.

The African Ice Age was characterized by drought rather than by cold. Around 50,000 years ago the ice sheets of northern Europe began to melt, introducing a period of warmer temperatures and moister climate in Africa. Parts of the inhospitable Sahara briefly became habitable. As the drought-ridden desert changed to savanna, the animals our ancestors hunted expanded their range and began moving through the newly emerging green corridor of grasslands. Our nomadic ancestors followed the good weather and plentiful game northward across this Saharan Gateway, although the exact route they followed remains to be determined.

Hapolog Group N

Our next ancestor is the woman whose descendants formed haplogroup N. Haplogroup N comprises one of two groups that were created by the descendants of L3.

One of these two groups of individuals moved north rather than east and left the African continent across the Sinai Peninsula, in present-day Egypt. Also faced with the harsh desert conditions of the Sahara, these people likely followed the Nile basin, which would have proved a reliable water and food supply in spite of the surrounding desert and its frequent sandstorms.

Descendants of these migrants eventually formed haplogroup N. Early members of this group lived in the eastern Mediterranean region and western Asia 60,000 years ago, where they likely coexisted for a time with other hominids such as Neanderthals. Excavations in Israel's Kebara Cave (Mount Carmel) have unearthed Neanderthal skeletons as recent as 60,000 years old, indicating that there was both geographic and temporal overlap of these two hominids. This likely accounts for the presence of Neanderthal DNA in people living outside of Africa.

Some members bearing mutations specific to haplogroup N formed many groups of their own which went on to populate much of the rest of the globe. These descendants are found throughout Asia, Europe, India, and the Americas. However, because almost all of the mitochondrial lineages found in the Near East and Europe descend from N, it is considered a western Eurasian haplogroup.
After several thousand years in the Near East, members of our group began moving into unexplored nearby territories, following large herds of migrating game across vast plains. These groups broke into several directions and made their way into territories surrounding the Near East.

Today, haplogroup N individuals who headed west are prevalent in Turkey and the eastern Mediterranean, they are found further east in parts of Central Asia and the Indus Valley of Pakistan and India. And members of our haplogroup who headed north out of the Levant across the Caucasus Mountains have remained in southeastern Europe and the Balkans. Importantly, descendants of these people eventually went on to populate the rest of Europe, and today comprise the most frequent mitochondrial lineages found there.

Hapolog Group R

After several thousand years in the Near East (about 55,000 years ago), individuals belonging to a new group called haplogroup R began to move out and explore the surrounding areas. Some moved south, migrating back into northern Africa. Others went west across Anatolia (present-day Turkey) and north across the Caucasus Mountains of Georgia and southern Russia. Still others headed east into the Middle East, and on to Central Asia. All of these individuals had one thing in common: they shared a female ancestor from the N clan, a recent descendant of the migration out of Africa.
The story of haplogroup R is complicated, however, because these individuals can be found almost everywhere, and because their origin is quite ancient. In fact, the ancestor of haplogroup R lived relatively soon after humans moved out of Africa during the second wave, and her descendants undertook many of the same migrations as her own group, N.
Because the two groups lived side by side for thousands of years, it is likely that the migrations radiating out from the Near East comprised individuals from both of these groups. They simply moved together, bringing their N and R lineages to the same places around the same times. The tapestry of genetic lines became quickly entangled, and geneticists are currently working to unravel the different stories of haplogroups N and R, since they are found in many of the same far-reaching places.

Hapolog Group RO

Some individuals (Branch RO) moved (around 41,000 years ago) across West Asia into Central Asia and then the Indus Valley. Others moved south, heading back into the African homeland from where their ancestors had recently departed.

Later, members of this lineage moved north across the Caucasus Mountains and west across Anatolia into Europe. These were Cro-Magnon. Their arrival in Europe heralded the end of the era of the Neanderthals.

Today, members of this lineage are present around the Red Sea and widely throughout the region. While this genetic lineage is common in Ethiopia and Somalia, individuals from this group are present at highest frequency in Arabia. Those living in East Africa are the likely result of more recent migrations back into the continent.

Pre-HV Hapolog

Descending from haplogroup R were a group of individuals who formed a western Eurasian lineage. The descendants of pre-HV live in high frequencies in the Anatolian-Caucasus region and Iran. While members of this group can also be found in the Indus Valley near the Pakistan-India border, their presence is considered the result of a subsequent migration eastward of individuals out of the Near East.

Individuals in haplogroup pre-HV can be found all around the Red Sea and widely throughout the Near East. While this genetic lineage is common in Ethiopia and Somalia, individuals from this group are found at highest frequency in Arabia. Because of their close genetic and geographic proximity to other western Eurasian clusters, members of this group living in eastern Africa are the likely result of more recent migrations back into the continent.

As we have seen from haplogroups N and R, descendants from these western Eurasian lineages used the Near East as a home base of sorts, radiating from that region to populate much of the rest of the world. Their descendants comprise all of the western Eurasian genetic lineages, and about half of the eastern Eurasian mtDNA gene pool. Some individuals moved across the Middle East into Central Asia and the Hindus Valley near western India. Some moved south, heading back into the African homeland from where their ancestors had recently departed.

Hapolog Group HV

Haplogroup pre-HV is of particular importance because over the course of several thousand years, its descendants split off and formed their own group, called HV. This group-thanks in large part to a brutal cold spell that was about to set in-gave rise to the two most prevalent female lineages found in Western Europe.

While some descendants of these ancestral lineages moved out across Central Asia, the Indus Valley, and even back into Africa, your ancestors remained in the Near East. Descending from haplogroup pre-HV, they formed a new group, characterized by a unique set of mutations, called haplogroup HV.

Haplogroup HV is a west Eurasian haplogroup found throughout the Near East, including Anatolia (present-day Turkey) and the Caucasus Mountains of southern Russia and the republic of Georgia. It is also found in parts of East Africa, particularly in Ethiopia, where its presence there indicates recent Near Eastern gene flow, likely the result of the Arab slave trade over the last two millennia.
Much earlier, around 30,000 years ago, some members of HV moved north across the Caucasus Mountains and west across Anatolia, their lineages being carried into Europe for the first time by the Cro-Magnon. Their arrival in Europe heralded the end of the era of the Neanderthals, a hominid species that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from about 230,000 to 29,000 years ago. Better communication skills, weapons, and resourcefulness probably enabled them to outcompete Neanderthals for scarce resources. Importantly, some descendants of HV had already broken off and formed their own group, haplogroup H, and continued the push into Western Europe.

Today, members of this line are part of the populations of Europe, West Asia (including Anatolia), and the Caucasus Mountains of South Russia and the Republic of Georgia.

This lineage accounts for around 21 percent of maternal lineages in Armenia. It is about 8 percent of those in Turkey and about 5 percent of those in Croatia. Across much of Europe, this line is present at low frequencies of around 1 percent. This lineage accounts for about 7 percent of the population of both India in South Asia and the United Arab Emirates in West Asia.

This wave of migration into western Europe marked the appearance and spread of what archaeologists call the Aurignacian culture, a culture distinguished by significant innovations in methods of manufacturing tools, standardization of tools, and use of a broader set of tool types, such as end-scrapers for preparing animal skins and tools for woodworking.

Around 15,000 to 20,000 years ago, colder temperatures and a drier global climate locked much of the world's fresh water at the polar ice caps, making living conditions near impossible for much of the northern hemisphere. Early Europeans retreated to the warmer climates of the Iberian Peninsula, Italy, and the Balkans, where they waited out the cold spell. Their population sizes were drastically reduced, and much of the genetic diversity that had previously existed in Europe was lost.

Hapolog Group H

Beginning about 15,000 years ago-after the ice sheets had begun their retreat-humans moved north again and recolonized western Europe. By far the most frequent mitochondrial lineage carried by these expanding groups was haplogroup H. Because of the population growth that quickly followed this expansion, your haplogroup now dominates the European female landscape.

Today haplogroup H comprises 40 to 60 percent of the gene pool of most European populations. In Rome and Athens, for example, the frequency of H is around 40 percent of the entire population, and it exhibits similar frequencies throughout western Europe. Moving eastward the frequencies of H gradually decreases, clearly illustrating the migratory path these settlers followed as they left the Iberian Peninsula after the ice sheets had receded. Haplogroup H is found at around 25 percent in Turkey and around 20 percent in the Caucasus Mountains.
While haplogroup H is considered the Western European lineage due to its high frequency there, it is also found much further east. Today it comprises around 20 percent of southwest Asian lineages, about 15 percent of people living in Central Asia, and around five percent in northern Asia.

Importantly, the age of haplogroup H lineages differs quite substantially between those seen in the West compared with those found in the East. In Europe its age is estimated at 10,000 to 15,000 years old, and while H made it into Europe substantially earlier (30,000 years ago), reduced population sizes resulting from the glacial maximum significantly reduced its diversity there, and thus its estimated age. In Central and East Asia, however, its age is estimated at around 30,000 years old, meaning your lineage made it into those areas during some of the earlier migrations out of the Near East.

Haplogroup H is a great example of the effect that population dynamics such as bottleneck events, founder effect, genetic drift, and rapid population growth, have on the genetic diversity of resulting populations.

Later migrations, such as those during the Neolithic Revolution and those triggered by the Bronze Age, brought additional groups containing different descendant branches of this line to Europe.

Haplolog Group H3

In Europe, the beginning of the last glacial maximum forced members of this lineage into the few habitable places that remained. When the glaciers receded, this line expanded from the Franco-Cantabrian refugium.

Today, this lineage is present most often in Portugal where it is about 10 percent of maternal lineages. It is between 4 and 8 percent of maternal lineages in the British Isles. It is about 5 percent of the population of France. It is about 5 percent of maternal lineages in Croatia. It is also part of some Jewish Diaspora groups.
Research on this branch is continuing.

The next map shows, in yellow and gold, the areas today closest to our DNA sequence. Those with a darker color, gold, are more closely related to us. This map also shows the general route of our ancestors from Africa to Ireland.

Our Paternal Hapolog Group is R-M222

The common direct paternal ancestor of all men alive today was born in Africa around 140,000 years ago. He was neither the first human male nor the only male alive in his time. He was the only male whose direct lineage is present in current generations. Most men, including your direct paternal ancestors, trace their ancestry to one of this man's descendants.
Your branch of this lineage took part in out-of-Africa migrations. Your ancestors traveled to West Asia where they lived by hunting wildlife and gathering wild fruits and berries. Over time, groups containing this branch spread west toward Europe, east to Central Asia, and then south into the Levant region.

A, BT and M42 Y-Chromosome

All men, including your direct paternal ancestors, trace their ancestry to one of this man's descendants. The oldest Y-chromosome lineages in existence, belonging to the A branch of the tree, are found only in African populations.
Around 75,000 years ago, the BT branch of the Y-chromosome tree was born, defined by many genetic markers, including M42. The common ancestor of most men living today, some of this man's descendants would begin the journey out of Africa, to India and the Middle East. Small groups would eventually reach the Americas. Others would settle in Europe, and some from this line remained near their ancestral homeland in Africa.

As M42-bearing populations migrated around the globe, they picked up additional markers on their Y-chromosomes. Today, there are no known BT individuals without these additional markers.

M168 Y- Chromosome

As humans left Africa, they migrated across the globe in a web of paths that spread out like the branches of a tree, each limb of migration identifiable by a marker in our DNA. For male lineages, the M168 branch was one of the first to leave the African homeland.

Moving outward from Africa and along the coastline, members of this lineage were some of the earliest settlers in Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia. Some from this line would even travel over the land bridge to reach the Americas.

The man who gave rise to the first genetic marker in your lineage probably lived in northeast Africa in the region of the Rift Valley, perhaps in present-day Ethiopia, Kenya, or Tanzania. Scientists put the most likely date for when he lived at around 70,000 years ago. His descendants became the only lineage to survive outside of Africa, making him the common ancestor of every non-African man living today.

But why would man have first ventured out of the familiar African hunting grounds and into unexplored lands? The first migrants likely ventured across the Bab-al Mandeb strait, a narrow body of water at the southern end of the Red Sea, crossing into the Arabian Peninsula soon after M168 originated-perhaps 65,000 years ago. These beachcombers would make their way rapidly to India and Southeast Asia, following the coastline in a gradual march eastward. By 50,000 years ago, they had reached Australia. These were the ancestors of today's Australian Aborigines.
It is also likely that a fluctuation in climate may have contributed to your ancestors' exodus out of Africa. The African ice age was characterized by drought rather than by cold. Around 50,000 years ago, though, the ice sheets of the northern hemisphere began to melt, introducing a short period of warmer temperatures and moister climate in Africa and the Middle East. Parts of the inhospitable Sahara briefly became habitable. As the drought-ridden desert changed to a savanna, the animals hunted by your ancestors expanded their range and began moving through the newly emerging green corridor of grasslands.

Your nomadic ancestors followed the good weather and the animals they hunted, although the exact route they followed remains to be determined. In addition to a favorable change in climate, around this same time there was a great leap forward in modern humans' intellectual capacity. Many scientists believe that the emergence of language gave us a huge advantage over other early human species. Improved tools and weapons, the ability to plan ahead and cooperate with one another, and an increased capacity to exploit resources in ways we hadn't been able to earlier, all allowed modern humans to rapidly migrate to new territories, exploit new resources, and replace other hominids such as the Neanderthals.

M89 Y- Chromosome

The next male ancestor in your ancestral lineage is the man who gave rise to M89, a marker found in 90 to 95 percent of all non-Africans. This man was born around 50,000 years ago in northern Africa or the Middle East.

The first people to leave Africa likely followed a coastal route that eventually ended in Australia. Your ancestors followed the expanding grasslands and plentiful game to the Middle East and beyond, and were part of the second great wave of migration out of Africa.

Beginning about 40,000 years ago, the climate shifted once again and became colder and more arid. Drought hit Africa and the grasslands reverted to desert, and for the next 20,000 years, the Saharan Gateway was effectively closed. With the desert impassable, your ancestors had two options: remain in the Middle East, or move on. Retreat back to the home continent was not an option.
While many of the descendants of M89 remained in the Middle East, others continued to follow the great herds of wild game through what is now modern-day Iran to the vast steppes of Central Asia.
These semi-arid grass-covered plains formed an ancient "superhighway" stretching from eastern France to Korea. Your ancestors, having migrated north out of Africa into the Middle East, then traveled both east and west along this Central Asian superhighway. A smaller group continued moving north from the Middle East to Anatolia and the Balkans, trading familiar grasslands for forests and high country.

Today, geneticists have found the lineage in 1 to 2 percent of Pakistani and Indian populations. However, it is about 4 percent of some Austro-Asiatic-language-family-speaking groups in India. It is about 9 percent of some Dravidian-language-family-speaking groups in India, and it is 9 to 10 percent of male lineages in Sri Lanka. In Borneo, it is about 5 percent of the population. In Malaysia, it is about 6 percent of the population.

P128 Y-Chromosome

The next male ancestor in your ancestral lineage is the man who gave rise to P128, a marker found in more than half of all non-Africans alive today. This man was born around 45,000 years ago in the Middle East or Central Asia.

The descendants of P128 migrated to the east and north, picking up additional markers on their Y-chromosomes. This lineage is the parent of several major branches on the Y-chromosome tree: O, the most common lineage in East Asia; R, the major European Y-chromosome lineage; and Q, the major Y-chromosome lineage in the Americas. These descendant branches went on to settle the rest of Asia, the Americas, and Europe; many others traveled to Southeast Asia.

Today, P128 individuals lacking these additional markers are rare in most populations, and are most commonly seen in Oceanian and Australian Aboriginal populations.

M45 Y-Chromosome

This paternal ancestor traveled with groups in the open savannas between Central and South Asia during the Paleolithic. These big game hunters were the parents to two of the most widespread male lineages in modern populations, one that is responsible for the majority of pre-Columbian lineages in the Americas (haplogroup Q) and many others from Asia and Europe. Another one that spread farther into Asia produced the highest frequency lineages in European populations (haplogroup R).

Today, members of this lineage who do not belong to a descendant branch are rare, and geneticists have found them most often in India. These populations include such diverse groups as the Saora (23 percent), the Bhumij (13 percent), and Muslims from Manipur (33 percent).

M207 Y-Chromosome

M207 was born in Central Asia around 30,000 years ago. His descendants would go on to settle in Europe, South Asia and the Middle East over the following 20,000 years. Today, most western European men belong to one branch-R-M342-that descended from this lineage. While it appears to have been one of the earliest lineages to settle in Europe more than 25,000 years ago, more recent population expansions associated with the post-glacial repopulation of northern Europe after the end of the last ice age, as well as the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic, also contributed to its high frequency in Ireland, the UK, France and Spain.

P231 Y-Chromosome

The Paleolithic ancestor who founded this lineage lived a nomadic lifestyle. His descendants include two major

descendant branches that today account for most European men and many others from Central Asia, West Asia, and South Asia.

M343 Y-Chromosome

The first members of this lineage lived as hunter-gatherers on the open savannas that stretched from Korea to Central Europe. They took part in the advances in hunting technology that allowed for population growth and expansions.

When the Earth entered a cooling phase, most from this line sheltered in refugia to the southeast of Europe and in West Asia. It was from these refugia that their populations rapidly expanded when the ice once more receded. Some traveled west across Europe. Others moved back toward their distant ancestors' homelands in Africa, passing through the Levant region. Through these movements and the population boom triggered by the Neolithic Revolution, this lineage and its descendant lineages came to dominate Europe.

Today, it has a wide distribution. In Africa, geneticists have found this lineage in Northern Africa (6 percent) and central Sahel (23 percent). Its frequency in Europe is at times high and at other times moderate. It represents about 7 percent of Russian male lineages, about 13 percent of male lineages in the Balkans, about 21 percent of Eastern European male lineages, 55 to 58 percent of Western European lineages, and about 43 percent of Central European male lineages. In Asia, most men of this lineage are found in West Asia (6 percent) and South Asia (5 percent). However, trace frequencies of around half a percent from this lineage are present in East Asia.


L278 Y-Chromosome

While some from this group traveled west into Central Asia, others moved south toward the Levant region. Today, they are present in trace frequencies of less than 1 percent in Italy, the Ukraine, and the region of the Pannonian Basin

P310 Y- Chromosome

Members of this lineage have traveled to Central Asia, Europe, and the Levant region. One descendant branch has the highest frequency of any male line in Western Europe. However, rather than a single movement across Europe, this lineage's branches may represent many simultaneous and successive waves of migration.
Today, it is 48 to 52 percent of male lineages in Ireland. It is 45 percent of those in France. It is about 38 percent of the male population in Spain. It is about 8 percent of male lineages in Italy. It is about 5 percent of male lineages in Oman. It is 1 to 2 percent of the male population in Iraq and Lebanon. It is also 1 to 2 percent of the male population in Kazakhstan

L21 Y- Chromosome

Today, members of this lineage are widely distributed across Europe and West Asia. They reach their highest frequency in Ireland where they and descendant branches contribute to between 35 and 38 percent of the male population. This line is 6 to 7 percent of male lineages in France. It is between 1 and 2 percent of male lineages in Germany. It is 2 to 4 percent of male lineages in Portugal and Spain. It is about 2 percent of the male population in Croatia. It is also present in some paternal lineages from the Ashkenazi Jewish population.

M222 Y-Chromosome
This lineage reaches its highest frequency in Ireland. There it is between 12 percent and 15 percent of the male population. It is present at trace frequencies of less than 1 percent across Scandinavia, in France, and in Germany.

Heat Map for M222


In June of 2013, the Genographic Team went to Northwest County Mayo, Ireland and took DNA from 100 volunteers. The maternal DNA results showed great genetic diversity, including lineages that dated back to some of the island’s earliest settlers (haplogroups U4.U5.U8), and some others that arrived more recently (haplogroups I, T1). The paternal DNA lineages were less diverse (88% of participants were haplogroup R1b), likely a result of the dominance of a few male leaders like King Niall of the Nine hostages, as well as the historical influence of the Viking raids from across the North Sea.



The National Geographic Geno-Graphic Project is on-going as more people submit their DNA samples. Any additional information with regard to the genetic history of the Morans and their forbears will be shared here as it comes in.

The GenoGraphic team offered to transfer my results to Family Tree DNA, a company that offers genealogy information from DNA testing. They took the GenoGraphic samples and checked against their data said to be the largest DNA genealogical data bank in the world and found some more information for us.

They confirm our Haplo Group to be M222, our formal Y-DNA Haplo Tree ends in the string – R1b1a2a1a1b4b. The R-M222 lineage began in Western Europe. It is the descendant of the major R-M343 lineage. The R-M222 line spread to the British Isles. It is over 12 percent of the population in Ireland.


Haplo Group R-M222 which is us, is found in concentration among today’s population in the following countries/provinces/states and/or cities:

Throughout the UK and Ireland

France – Le Mans

Belgium - Ghent

Germany – Saarbrucken, Bielefeld, and Melle

The Netherlands – Utrecht, Gronigen, and Kollem

Poland – Cuodcicz

Canada – Saskatchewan, Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Quebec

US – along the eastern seaboard from Vermont to South Carolina, also Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, California, Louisiana, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Tennessee, Minnesota, Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, and Kentucky.


In addition they had a map showing the location of populations testing for the P310 and L21 SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism). A SNP is a marker. The L21 marker is the last in our chain and the M222 Haplo Group.


Norway - Thodheim and Stjordal

Sweden – Leksand

Denmark – Copenhagen and Viborg

Poland – Poznan and Szcz








Czech Republic







They identified, that is the sample tested positive for some additional markers of my (our) DNA:

P229, P232, P280, P285, P233, P236, P238, P242, P245, P286, P297

L23, L51, L150, L151.

These markers appear in the same populations above and add:

Armenia, Iraq, Iran, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Syria, Israel, Cyprus, Turkey, Greece, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania, Bulgaria and Slovakia.

All of which pretty well fits in with the road map our ancestors took from Africa to Ireland.

From the Family Tree DNA website I found another resource, Eupedia, that offered a number of graphics that further trace our DNA on a map and in time.



Chronological Development Of Y-DNA


K => 40,000 years ago (probably arose in northern Iran)

T => 30,000 years ago (around the Red Sea)

J => 30,000 years ago (in the Middle East)
R => 28,000 years ago (in the Central Asia)
E1b1b => 26,000 years ago (in southern Africa)
I => 25,000 years ago (in the Balkans)
R1a1 => 21,000 years ago (in southern Russia)
R1b => 20,000 years ago (around the Caspian Sea or Central Asia)
E-M78 => 18,000 years ago (in north-eastern Africa)
G => 17,000 years ago (between India and the Caucasus)
I2 => 17,000 years ago (in the Balkans)
J2 => 15,000 years ago (in northern Mesopotamia)
I2b => 13,000 years ago (in Central Europe)
N1c1 => 12,000 years ago (in Siberia)
I2a => 11,000 years ago (in the Balkans)
R1b1b2 => 10,000 years ago (north or south of the Caucasus)
J1 => 10,000 years ago (in the Arabian peninsula)
E-V13 => 10,000 years ago (in the Balkans)
I2b1 => 9,000 years ago (in Germany)
I2a1 => 8,000 years ago (in Sardinia)
I2a2 => 7,500 years ago (in the Dinaric Alps)
E-M81 => 5,500 years ago (in the Maghreb)
I1 => 5,000 years ago (in Scandinavia)
R1b-L21 => 4,000 years ago (in Central or Eastern Europe)
R1b-S28 => 3,500 years ago (around the Alps)
R1b-S21 => 3,000 years ago (in Frisia or Central Europe)
I2b1a => less than 3,000 years ago (in Britain)






More info to come as we find it, receive it, get it or are given it. Remember I am still working on some of the graphics, mostly on the Maternal Haplogroup maps, so check back if you would like to see them.


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