On a little plain above the Neches River some 12 miles outside Tyler,
Texas, a lone monument stands like a forgotten sentinel. The inscription
reads: On this site the Cherokee Chief Bowles was killed on July 16,
1839, while leading 500 Indians of various tribes against 500 Texans - the
last engagement between Cherokees and whites in Texas.
else marks the site - no baroque sculpture of heroic figures with eloquent
gestures and tragic faces, just this singular shaft, a grassy field and a
distant wood. The memorial seems austere, a grudging acknowledgement by
the state of Texas of a troublesome enemy.
What perverse destiny
brought John Bowles (the Cherokees called him Diwali or Bowles) from the
fog-shrouded mountains of Nantahala to this solitary field in Texas? It is
an incredible journey, marked by tragedy, chance and hardship.
of 12 children, Diwali was born in Cherokee County in 1756, the son of a
Scottish trader and a full-blood Cherokee mother. This mixed-blood
parentage gave him a remarkable physical appearance: sandy hair and gray
eyes in conjunction with a Cherokee's coloring and physique. As a result,
Diwali was the epitome of that generation of mixed bloods that James
Mooney felt combined the remarkable traits of both races; men who became
the catalysts in changing Cherokee history - men such as Sequoyah, John
Ross, Major Ridge and William Hicks.
Bowles' parents were killed by
white settlers when he was 14. The young boy developed a pronounced
hostility for white people from North Carolina. Following the death of
his parents, Bowles moved to a small town on the Tennessee River called
Running Water where he quickly became a leader and a spokesman. In 1792,
on the death of the noted Cherokee Chief Dragging Canoe, Bowles became
town chief. He was about 32 years of age. Two years later, he became
involved in an incident that would change his life
Accounts are filled with contradictions, but most versions
begin with the signing of a treaty with the U. S. government in 1785.
After much bureaucratic delays, the Cherokees finally received a cash
settlement at the Tellico Blockhouse in eastern Tennessee in the fall of
1793. Following the disbursement of money, Chief Bowles camped on the
Tennessee River. Several boats carrying immigrants bound for Louisiana
stopped near the Cherokees and two white traders came ashore and initiated
trade with the Indians. Bowles' band eagerly bought glass beads, trinkets
and whiskey. The money was quickly gone.
Angered by the trickery
and deception of the traders, Bowles gathered the bartered goods and
returned them to the traders asking that the money, or a fair portion of
it, be returned. In the ensuing argument, fighting broke out and the white
traders and several Cherokees were killed. According to the testimony of
several immigrants, Chief Bowles and his warriors told the survivors that
they would take the women, children and slaves down the river to safety.
Arriving at the mouth of the St. Francis River, Bowles provided them with
food and boats and sent them downstream to New Orleans.
point, Bowles learned that rumors were rampant. The Cherokee government
had been informed that Bowles had attacked and massacred a large party of
defenseless travelers, robbing them of their possessions. Both the
Cherokee and federal government had issued orders for his arrest,
declaring him an outlaw since he had broken the treaty of 1785. Chief
Bowles had no choice but to flee. He and his band traveled first to French
territory in Missouri where he remained until 1811. When a series of
natural disasters (earthquakes and floods) struck this area, Bowles
migrated to Arkansas where he remained until 1819 when a government survey
evicted him. Thus began a year of wandering as Chief Bowles led his tribe
to a series of locations near the Texas and Arkansas border, finally
settling near Nacogdoches. Here he vowed to remain.
series of investigations proved Chief Bowles to be innocent of any
wrongdoing in the alleged "massacre" on the Tennessee River. The final
report concluded that Bowles had been the victim of one of the many rumors
circulating during this period. However, stung by the rejection of the
Cherokees, Bowles chose not to return. Unfortunately, it would not be the
last time that he would be falsely accused of deception and
Once established in Texas on a tract of land that resembled
the valleys of Tennessee and North Carolina, Bowles began a vigorous
campaign to acquire legal rights to the land he occupied. Gradually, his
tribe - called the Texas Cherokees - grew, and became noted for their
industriousness, excelling in farming and raising cattle. Indeed, at a
time when Texas was filled with warring factions, Bowles' tribe was
unique. Early government agents noted the contrast between the Texas
Cherokees and the open hostilities attending the struggle between Mexico
and the American invaders with a bewildering cast of tribes with
uncertain (and everchanging) alliances.
Repeatedly, Bowles and his
council members traveled to Mexico City to acquire recognition from the
prevailing government. However, each time that recognition was promised,
the governor would be defeated, overthrown or assassinated before official
sanction could be granted. A dozen petitions were lost or disavowed by a
new governor. Yet, Bowles persisted. When he was repeatedly approached by
both American and Mexican representatives asking that he pledge alliance
in the coming war, Bowles remained stubbornly neutral - a position he
maintained largely due to his friendship with Sam Houston. Houston assured
him that when the war was over, he would personally move to see that the
Texas Cherokees received official recognition by the Texas Republic. In
fact, Houston had the Cherokee land surveyed as proof that full rights
However, Houston did not foresee the extensive
resistance he would get to such an act. Rumors again circulated, and
although the majority were quickly proven false, they persisted for
decades. Bowles was said to have secret alliances with the Mexicans, and
even after the war for Texas was over, the new Republic of Texas continued
to give credence to the rumors. Atrocities committed by other tribes were
credited to Chief Bowles, including the infamous Kilough Massacre in which
18 members of a white family of settlers were killed. No doubt, Bowles
remembered another unfounded rumor many years before!
Houston's successor, Mirabeau Bonaparte Lamar, took office in 1838, he
immediately announced his intention of ridding Texas of the Cherokee
menace. Lamar had been a major factor in the removal of the Cherokees
from Georgia and was known to have a long-abiding dislike for Indians.
Despite Houston's vigorous attempts to protect Bowles and his people, the
tragedy seemed predestined. Lamar found all previous petitions and
commitments to the Cherokees null and void. He ordered the Cherokees out
of Texas and sent armed forces to expedite the order.
On a hot July
morning in 1839, Chief Bowles mounted his sorrel horse for the last time.
After refusing to accept the conditions of the removal of his tribe (to be
escorted by an armed guard and with the gunlocks removed from their
rifles), the 83-year-old chief arrayed himself for battle. He held a
cherished sword given to him by Sam Houston, and an ancient black military
hat was on his head. As he rode to the field, he saw 500 armed Texan
militia approaching. This is the end as recorded by Mary Whatley Clarke,
quoting an eyewitness: Throughout the battle, his voice could be heard
urging his warriors on .... He was a magnificent specimen of barbaric
manhood ... His horse was shot several times, fell to the ground, throwing
off his rider. The chief slowly rose to his feet and as he walked away he
was shot in the back by Henry Conner. Bowles took several steps and fell,
then rose to a sitting position.. He was approached by Captain Smith ... I
said, "Captain Smith, don't shoot him," but as I spoke, he fired, shooting
the chief in the head. Bowles' body was mutilated by the Texans. He was
scalped, and several soldiers cut strips of flesh from his back for
horses' reins. His unburied body lay for several years on the spot where
It is difficult to understand this atrocity today for we
are far removed from the bitter racism and violence of Texas in the 1830s.
It was the time of "Manifest Destiny", and Native Americans, regardless of
tribe or culture, were perceived as a barbaric menace that must be
driven from the Republic.
Bowles' treasured sword survived. After
a brief stint in the Civil War, it ended up in the Masonic Lodge in
Bowles' son, John, who was killed shortly after
his father's death, attempted to reunite the Texas Cherokees. When killed,
he was wearing his father's hat. Apparently, he had returned to the
battlefield the night after Bowles had been killed and retrieved the hat
(which was returned to Sam Houston, an act that angered him since he
perceived it as a taunt by his anti-Cherokee compatriots. It probably
In time, Bowles, identified by historians as the Cherokee
Moses, became a topic of interest to Cherokee scholars and little-known
facts about his life began to emerge. His daughter married one of
Sequoyah's sons, and Sequoyah was known to have visited the Texas
Cherokees. In fact, Sequoyah allegedly died in 1843 in the little town of
San Franando where his son lived. For the rest of his life, Sam Houston
continued to denounce the government that he felt was responsible for the
death of Chief Bowles. In a fiery speech delivered before the Texas
assembly in 1840, Houston noted that Bowles was a better man than his
murderers. As a consequence, Houston received a number of death threats
and was repeatedly denounced by Gov. Lamar.
Now, the only justice
left is the judgment of time.