Another empresario was Hayden Edwards, who was given a grant to settle the lands about Nacogdoches. Edwards and his brothers were from Kentucky and there is some evidence they were of Celtic stock. The name is Welsh. His was not an easy task. As we have already noted, many settlers moved into the area with no formal right. The Cherokees occupied land within his grant. Others did have some previous claim. Edwards claimed Nacogdoches as his capital and announced persons with prior Spanish land claims must present their papers to him. Even though it was known Edwards, as part of his grant from the State of Coahuila, was to honor the previous legal grants, the settlers did not appreciate his manner. Edwards charged fees for those who did not have papers to remain on their claims.
< Hayden Edwards
The squatters, who had no legal standing, were even more alarmed. This was a very diverse group that included Indians, Mexicans of one political persuasion or another, Spanish, and French from the old days, and many Americans who crossed the border to begin a new life as pioneers. Those who had previous titles were for the most part Spanish or Mexican. They resented this Norteamericano presiding over them. Edwards arbitrarily called for an election for Alcalde of Nacogdoches and pushed for the election of his son-in-law, Irish born Chichester Chaplin (pictured to the right). The Mexican and Spanish offered their own candidate, Irishman Samuel Norris. Norris was an old settler in the area. The squatters coalesced behind the Norris group. It was a close election. After much dispute about who was eligible to vote, the Mexican government decided Norris had won the election and he was installed as the Alcalde of Nacogdoches. The Edwards brothers wrote the Governor of Coahuila to complain. Ben Edwards wrote the letter, but neither brother was prepared for the response. The Governor replied the letter showed a lack of respect. The Governor revoked the empresario contract. The Edwards brothers were under orders to leave the Republic of Mexico territory.
The Edwards brothers had by this time brought in about 200 colonists to the area. The brothers and their supporters declared a revolt and pronounced the Free State of Fredonia as their republic. They arrested Norris and his brother Nathaniel, who was a lieutenant in the militia, and others including Jacob Lewis Nugent, a family enemy. They quickly sought an alliance with the Indians. They also sent to Stephen F. Austin for aid.
Austin, ever the diplomat and politician, was mindful the liberal element in Mexican politics of 1824 (which wrote the constitution guaranteeing the rights of the states to govern themselves) was being replaced by politicians with a more centralist view. Austin sent word he would have no part in a revolt; he and his colonists supported the government of Mexico and they did not appreciate the stirring of the Indians.
The Cherokees were approached by an Indian agent to revolt and side with the Fredonions. The entire fabric of Indian-Mexican relations in East Texas was being tested. The agent working with the Edwards was John Dunn Hunter, a man of Scottish ancestry. A drawing of him is to the right. Hunter was taken as a child by Indians when his family was killed by Kickapoo Indians. He was raised by them until he was a teen when he was again brought back to his own people. Hunter had influence with Chief Fields. Earlier, Hunter convinced Fields to allow other U. S. Indians such as the Shawnee, Delaware and Kickapoo to settle on lands near the Cherokee. The strategy was- the Mexican authorities would treat with them more seriously when it was learned they had allied with others and trebeled their numbers. Hunter was able to get Fields to sign a treaty with the Fredonians supporting the new republic.
The Shawnee, however, signed a treaty to not attack Mexican settlements. The treaty was negotiated by Benjamin O'Fallon, the son of Dr. James O'Fallon the friend of George Rogers Clark.
For some time, the Cherokees tried to negotiate with the Mexican government for title to the lands they had settled in Texas. The Mexicans stalled and ignored their repeated request. It was for an alternate solution the younger, frustrated Cherokees had sided with the Fredonians. While Fields was coordinating with the Fredonians, the official Mexican representative to the Indians in East Texas was taking action. He was none other than Colonel Peter Ellis Bean.
Bean successfully got the other Chiefs to not enter the fray. In return, he would work for their title to the land. The Chiefs elected Bowles, Chief of Chiefs. Bean led the Indians with his Mexican forces to Nacogdoches to face down the Fredonians. Another force led by the squatters, under Lawrence Richard Kenny, was also moving toward Nacogdoches. Neither force was necessary because of an incident that occurred within Fredonian held Nacogdoches.
The arrest of Norris, his brother, and the others was not well thought of by most of the Fredonians. When the Edwards brothers announced Nugent, a known personal enemy of the brothers, was shot when he tried to "escape", the revolt collapsed from within. The remaining Fredonians were in the Old Stone Fort. Alexander Horton, John McGinnis, Peter Galloway, and others attacked them there. Not a shot was fired. The Fredonians just gave up and left. When Bean, the Indians; Kenny, and the squatters arrived, most of the Fredonians had left for the United States where sympathy was high for them.
One of the supporters of The Fredonians was Dr. James Grant who was an agent of the British government. They saw Fredonia as another buffer between the United States and Mexico. While it appears the British were arranging to support the Fredonian revolt, their possible involvement faded away when the whole thing collapsed from within. Dr. Grant, however, we will hear of again.
What was the Edwards grant later was divided into three parcels and a little more territory added and then awarded David G. Burnet, Vehlein and Zavala. Robert McManus surveyed these grants. Burnet, Vehlein and Zavala in turn sold their grants to the Gavelston Bay and Texas Land Company.
The Edwards' settlers, who took their chances by remaining behind, were well treated and allowed to keep their claims. An example was John S. Roberts a man of Scotch and English ancestry. He was a merchant in Nacogdoches. He left the Fredonians early in the revolt and was allowed to continue operating his store in Nacogdoches which was located across the street from the Old Stone Fort. Fields and Hunter were killed by the Cherokees.
Peter Ellis Bean was made Commander at Nacogdoches. He made an application to be an empresario and built a combined sawmill and grist mill that was water powered. Bean was denied the empresario grant when it was learned he had two wives, one in Mexico and another in Nacogdoches. His "wife" at Nacogdoches was a Scottish lass, Candace Midkiff.
Chief Bowles, having done his part for Bean in the Fredonian Revolt, pushed for the titles to the land his tribe settled; Bean supported him as did a Scotsman, Kendall Lewis. Lewis was a citizen of four nations: Mexico, the United States, the Creek, and Cherokee nations. He was a friend of Houston and was later one of the first to settle what is now Titus County. He lived with the Indians, and worked on their behalf.
The Fredonian incident was not soon forgotten by the Cherokees. They distrusted the Mexicans and their promises about the land based on previous promises made and broken. The incident was also not forgotten by many of the Mexicans in Coahuila and Mexico City who distrusted the Norteamericanos.
THE ROBERTSON COLONY
Sterling Robertson, pictured to the left, was an Irish American. He was given permission to establish a colony. His father, James Robertson, is known as the "Father of Tennessee." The younger Robertson served as a major over Tennessee troops during the War of 1812. He was first in Texas in 1823, and began moving families from Tennessee to Texas in 1829. The history of this colony goes back to 1822, when a Nashville, Tennessee company called the Texas Association was formed to petition Mexico for a grant. Among those signing the petition was Robertson and fellow Tennessean, Sam Houston. Sam Houston first came to Texas regarding matters about this venture. Houston wrote back to Tennessee; "Texas is the finest portion of the globe that has ever blessed my vision!" Because of procedural problems, Robertson's empresario grant was revoked. He was able to get the matter settled in 1834. By 1835, Robertson settled 600 families in Texas. Robertson County is named for him.
Michael Reed was the first of the Robertson colonists in Texas. His father, James Reed Sr., was born in Ireland. He served in the American Revolution. Another Irish Robertson colonist was merchant John Connell who helped found the town of Nolan in honor of Philip Nolan. The name was later changed to Belton.
There was a Methodist preacher in the Robertson colony. He was the Reverend Alfred Benjamin Kerr. Website reader Tracy Kirk, a descendant of the Kerrs, writes us that his wife, Lucy Thomson Kerr organized the first Methodist Sunday School class in Texas, in their home in Union Hill. Her brother, Alexander Thomson, was one of Sterling Robertson's investors. Reverend Kerr's father, Hugh, came to the Roberston Colony and published the first book of poetry in Texas in 1838.
In the Robertson colony, there was a group that migrated from Ireland to Charleston, South Carolina; to Boligee, Alabama; to Texas. They began to arrive in Texas in 1829. They settled at a place known as Staggers Point (Strivers Point to the settlers, their brogue led others to call it Staggers Point) near what is now Benchley in Robertson County. The family names are listed in Appendix V. They built a Presbyterian church, which was later known as The Old Irish Church of Red Top Prairie, and a fort. The fort was built by Irish born James Dunn and was known as Dunn's Fort.
Another family in Robertson's colony who built a fort was the Parker family. The family came from Crawford County in Illinois. The fort was built by Elder John Parker and three of his sons: Silas, James and Benjamin near the Navasota River. The fort was built of split cedars that were buried adjoining one another in the ground three feet and then extended up from the ground about twelve feet. Fort Parker featured two, two story block houses at opposite corners of the fort. There were rows of log cabins against the walls on the inside. The need for the forts was obviously made when one of their number, Cynthia Ann Parker, was a victim of one of the many Indian attacks. That is a story for when we reach that time frame.
The Robertson Colony was taken from Robertson under a ruling by Mexican authorities, it then became known as the Austin and Williams Colony. Samual May Williams having been made a partner in the new colony the administration of which they were asked to take over. Robertson was able to retain his name over the colony after a long and extensive court battle.
The colonies founded by the other empresarios had many Irish among them. In 1824, the Irish in De Leon's colony were: Peter Carr, Edward, Charles, and John Linn; Patrick Mahan, James Quinn, and a Shearn family.
The DeWitt Colony surveyor was Major James Kerr, a Scot. He was the first American settler west of the Colorado. He laid out the town of Gonzales in 1825.
< James Kerr
Before coming to Texas, Kerr had a full life. He fought with Daniel Boone's son, Nathaniel, in the War Of 1812. He was: a Sheriff, a State Representative, and a State Senator. For the last office he ran against his own father-in-law, General James Caldwell who was once the Missouri Speaker of the House as well as the Kentucky Speaker of the House. Kerr's Creek, Kerrville, and Kerr County are named for James Kerr. Other Celts in the area soon after were: Arthur Burns, born in Ireland, who gave Irish Creek its name; Daniel McCoy, Joe McCoy, John McCoy, John Williams, Joseph Callahan, Ned Cullen, George F. Managhan, George Foley, John McCrabb, Bartholomew McClure, and John McSherry.
There was an Irish section of Béxar known as Irish Flats, it was located on the wrong side of the wagon tracks and had somewhat of a rowdy reputation. There is a story from that era which says the word `gringo' originated from an Irishman in Béxar. His name was Timothy O'Hara. O'Hara was an Irish tenor who loved to sing and he always sang the song, Green Grow the Lilacs. He sang it so often, the Mexican residents called him Señor Greengrow Over time and the language barrier that became, gringo. Later the term, as the story goes, was applied to other Europeans or Americans in the city.
Life on the frontier could be brutally harsh. Consider the story of Mrs. John McSherry. The Guadalupe River area, where the McSherry cabin was located was attacked by Indians in 1829. Sarah McSherry was watching her husband, John McSherry, approach her from a spring where he went to fetch water. She was standing in the door to their cabin when the Indians swept upon him. They killed him right in front of her eyes! Bolting the cabin door and grabbing a rifle, she held the Indians off. At dusk, the approach of John McCrabb sent the Indians scurrying.
John McCrabb took Mrs. McSherry and her infant son, John, to safety. Sarah McSherry was a beautiful blonde woman; she later remarried. Years later, Indians attacked again and killed her second husband and her brother as she watched. They captured her and her son, John, and a new baby. On the trail the baby kept crying. An Indian grabbed the crying baby and smashed its brains against a tree. Sarah was able to escape, but she left behind her son, John. She soon happened upon some men who agreed to help her. They attacked the Indians and recovered her son.
In the next year, she married another man who was murdered before the year was out. She married again, but this time her new husband elected to move from the Guadalupe area because of the Indian attacks. Enroute to the safety of the mission at San Juan, they were escorted by seven young men. Among them were two named Power, and another named McGary. When they arrived at the mission they were attacked by Indians. John McSherry, now eleven, was almost killed. He was guarding the horses. The horses were what the Indians wanted. After the attack, when their charges were safely settled in the mission, the seven young men headed back home to the Guadalupe. Six of them never made it. Only one of the Power brothers survived the Indian attack that awaited them.
Sarah and her new husband settled on the San Antonio River near the mission. Two years later the Indians attacked again, taking their horses, murdering their neighbors, and stealing the neighbor's children. The Indians were later overtaken by a party led by Colonel Andrew Neill. The Indians were defeated and the children rescued.
Sarah McSherry's story is unusual, in the depth of her personal tragedy, not in what she was forced to see and live through.
In 1830, Indians attacked a home ten miles east of what is now Grapeland, Texas. The home belonged to John Edens. Six or seven women, several young children and four elderly men of the Edens and Madden families were inside. They had collected together while the heads of the families and other young men were off looking for Indians. In the attack, ony four year old Balis Madden survived unscathed. Two other survivors; Mrs James Madden and Mrs. Robert Madden survived injuries received in the attack.
Scattered groups of Celts were elsewhere in Texas. James Bowie and his brother, Rezin, were at Béxar. Their father came from Ireland where he fought the British. His mother was from Wales. In America, the family moved from Kentucky to Missouri, and then to Rapides parish in Louisiana. In 1814, Jim Bowie left home and joined with his brothers, John and Rezin, in the slave trade. They worked with Jean Laffite. Jim Bowie killed the son of the famous pirate when he crossed him in a deal. The brothers were a tough lot, and there were many men killed by them. Rezin Bowie invented the famous knife that became known as the Bowie Knife. Jim Bowie made it famous through his many adventures. After he and his brothers left the slave trade, they started a very successful sugar cane plantation on the Bayou La Fourche. They introduced the use of steam power to grind the cane. The brothers were leading the good life.
Rezin was elected to the Louisiana legislature and James was a member of New Orleans society. James spoke both French and Spanish. Sometime after 1826, Jim Bowie killed a man in a duel and found it necessary to move to Texas. He became a citizen in the Béxar area and received title to 15, eleven league land grants (732,435 acres), a little larger than Travis County. In 1831, he married the beautiful Ursula Veramendi, daughter of the Vice Governor of Texas, who was soon to be Governor, Juan Martin Veramendi. Veramendi was the first civilian Alcalde of the city of San Antonio de Béxar (the Governor or the presidio commander was the city's head administrative official prior to 1824). Veramendi was instrumental in the decision to allow Stephen F. Austin to claim his father's grant of a colony in 1821. Jim Bowie and Juan Veramendi went into business together. They owned, in a partnership, a cotton mill in Saltillo.
For years there were, in Béxar, rumors of a cache of silver from the Los Almagres mine. During the period the Spanish worked the mine, it was common practise for the Spanish to hide in storage all smelted bullion from the mine to secure it from the Indians. The silver stayed hidden until the next caravan could transport it under escort to Mexico.
At a point in time between the transfer of power between Spain and Mexico, there remained hidden in storage a large amount of silver bullion from the Los Almagres mine. This cache was eventually abandoned. The Lipan tribe which told the Spanish about the mine were aware of the mining operation and new of or found the cache. It became a tribal secret. Anyone revealing the location was to suffer death for betraying the tribe.
This Lipan tribe, under the leadership of Chief Xolic, began to bring small amounts of the silver to San Antonio for trading purposes. This was done slowly over a number of years so that it was not an unusual sight for the Lipan Indians to be seen with small amounts of silver to trade.
The residents of San Antonio were familiar with the, what was now the legend of the Spanish Los Almagres silver and they believed it was the source of the Lipan's silver. Many people; Spanish, Mexican and American tried to learn of the Lipan's hiding place but the secret was never revealed.
When Jim Bowie moved to San Antonio, he learned of the legend and decided to do something about it. He cultivated a relationship with the Lipans and particularly with Chief Xolic. At one point he presented the chief with a silver plated rifle. Finally, Jim Bowie was made a blood-brother and adopted into the tribe. He left San Antonio to live with the tribe. He hunted buffalo, killed Lipan enemies in battle and, it is said, married one of Chief Xolic's daughters. Jim Bowies was an extraordinary man and by making his skills available to and for the Lipans he was very successfull in ingratiating himself with them. Eventually, the took him into their utmost confidence and shared with him the location of the silver bullion of Los Almagres. Bowie later said that when they took him to see the silver - great expectations of treasure played in his mind, but that it was pale compared to what he actaully saw before his eyes. It was great enough a vison that Bowie almost immediately left the tribe for San Antonio to plan for an expedition to recover the silver.
About the same time, the old chief Xolic died and a young warrior named Tremanos succeeded him as chief of the Lipan tribe that was keeper of the Los Almagres silver. He was very suspect of Bowie and when he led the tribe into San Antonio for its annual trading mission, he openly accused Bowie of treachery. Bowie felt he had to act quickly and set off with ten men for the location of the stored silver. With him was his brother Rezin, along with Irishmen: David Buchanan, Matthew Doyle, Jesse Wallace, Thomas McCaslin, Robert Armstrong, and five others. On November 21, 1831, Bowie's party of ten men was attacked by 164 Caddo and Lipan Indians in the area of Calf Creek. The Battle of Calf Creek resulted. The fight raged for eight days. At one point, the Indians tried to burn them out of their high grass position. When it was over, Thomas McCaslin was killed and three other Americans were wounded. The Indians had 80 killed and a large number wounded. The Texans had won the battle but lost the war, they returned to San Antonio without the silver.
After that the legend grew and it acquired other names such as Bowie's Mine or the San Saba Silver Mine as well as the original Los Almagres name.
Within two years (1833), Bowie's life came apart when a cholera epidemic claimed Bowie's wife, his two children, and his business partner, Governor Juan Veramendi. He turned to drink, but would find himself again in time to make a contribution to Texas and Celtic history.
John McHenry, who was already mentioned as one of Lafitte's pirates at Galveston, with the Mina Expedition and with James Long in 1821, squatted on land six to eight miles up the Lavaca River from Matagorda Bay. McHenry Bayou was named for him. This land was deemed unable to be settled by the Mexican government because of the dietary considerations of the Karankawa Indians who inhabited the area. There were reports they were cannibals. Another settler on the Matagorda coast was Dugald McFarlane, who was born in Scotland. He built a two story castle known as McFarlane's Castle in 1829. It was the first two story structure in that part of Texas. Neill McLennan, born in Scotland, settled in what is now Falls County. McLennan County is named for him.
MEANWHILE, IN EAST TEXAS
Meanwhile, East Texas continued to develop and to play a part in Texas history. John Bevil created Bevil's Settlement which later became known as Jasper, Texas. The settlement was laid out by George Washington Smyth, whose mother was Irish. Two of this settlement's first citizens were Thomas Watts, who was born in Ireland in 1765; and Thomas Freeman McKinney. McKinney, born in Christian County Kentucky, operated a store in Nacogdoches for a time before moving and building a sawmill. A town grew up around the sawmill called McKinney Town, which later became Grigg's Bluff. Today that town is called Port Neches. Horatio McMullen Hanks laid out the town of Aurora, Texas, which today is Port Arthur. Daniel Donoho (believed to be Donahue), after whom Donoho Creek is named, was another settler in Bevil's Settlement. Still another was Owen Taylor and his wife. Her name was Spicey McQueen.
The town of San Augustine was laid out among the Ayish Bayou settlers by Thomas McFarland. It was the first town in Texas laid out on the American plan rather than the Spanish plan. The difference between the two was the public plaza. Under both plans it was located in the center of the city. In the Spanish plan, government and church buildings would be built around the open plaza; in the American plan, the public plaza was where the government buildings were located, and private businesses, residences or churches surrounded it. Later, together with his brother Samuel P. McFarland, Thomas McFarland laid out the town of Belgrade, Texas. Before coming to San Augustine, Thomas McFarland laid out the towns of Pendleton (in Sabine County at Gaines Ferry), Mondelphia (on the Red River), and Cottland. The brothers McFarland learned their trade from their father who laid out the towns of Lexington, Indiana, and McFarland, Ohio.
Besides the McFarlands, other Irish in Ayish Bayou were: John McNeal, John Shannon, Thomas Bryan, Charles Hogan, S. Calhoun, Daniel McLean, and the Humphries family.
John McGuffey was one of the first settlers in the Sabine Pass area.
CLOSING THE BARN DOOR
The Fredonian affair advanced the political elements in Mexico wanting to rein in the colonization of Texas. One of these men, General Mier y Terán, wrote a report in 1829 pointing out a number of disturbing facts. The Mexican presence past Béxar was practically none existent. The ratio of Mexicans to Norteamericanos was one to ten. Worse, the Mexicans were becoming the lowest class of citizen, doing menial work for the colonists. The foreigners had their own schools (most of the teachers were Irish); the Mexicans had none. The older children of the colonists were sent "back" to the States for further education. Economic trade was almost totally with the United States and only minimally with Mexico.
< General Mier y Teran
All this sounded alarming to those in Mexico City who saw it as threatening their hold on the province. The situation, however, was an obvious outgrowth of the Mexican policy requiring the colonies to fend for themselves and not ask for any support from the Republic of Mexico. The colonies were exempted from Mexican taxes, duties, mandatory church tithes, military service, laws, and government. Mexico City let the colonies regulate themselves and, instead of serving as a buffer between the two cultures of Mexico and the United States, the policy actually brought Yankee values and industrious activity closer to Mexico proper. Even the Indian buffer was non existent. The Indians made peace with the organized and accurate shooting colonists and continued to raid Mexican settlements at and below Béxar.
To add to Mexican worries about Texas, Andy Jackson, the man who quite literally took Spanish Florida from them, was now President of the United States. Jackson was nominated to be President on a motion made by Representative Kennedy of the Tennessee Legislature. Jackson had many Irish Americans in his cabinet. One of these dealt with Mexico. He was Louis McLane, Secretary of State. Another Irishman, Anthony Butler, the U.S. Charge d'Affairs in Mexico City, attempted, from 1825 until 1831, to purchase Texas for the Jackson administration.
President Andrew Jackson is the only President of the United States to have foreign born parents. They were born in Ireland.
Jackson once said; "I have always been proud of my ancestry and of being descended from that noble race." No friend of England, Jackson carried a sabre wound on his head and arm from a British officer whose boot he refused to polish. In the American Revolution, he lost two brothers and his mother. Jackson said he was "Brought up under the tyranny of Britain; altho' young, embarked in the struggle for our liberties in which I lost everything that was dear to me..." Having defeated the British in the American Revolution and in the War of 1812, Jackson turned his attention to the other great European power in North America: Spain.
It was reported Jackson told a Mexican official in Washington "the United States should never have lost the opportunity to obtain Texas, and that the way to obtain territory was first to occupy it and, having possession, treat for it, as had been done in Florida." General Terán aware of this and other events made recommendations to the Mexican government.
In April of 1830, Don Lucas Alaman, the Mexican Minister of Foreign Relations, presented Terán's proposals to the Mexican Congress in a secret session. On April 6th, a formal decree was issued which formally forbid any colonization of Mexican territory by citizens of adjacent countries. It forbade any foreigner entering Mexican territory from the north without a passport issued by a Mexican consular official. Other recommendations not published in the decree, but known to be a part of the policy were:
Settle Texas with Mexican convicts.
Introduce colonists who do not speak English.
Collect customs and supervise the trade,
directing it to Mexico (the law exempting Texans from duties for seven years was about to expire).
Assign agents to be in the colonies to keep the government informed of events.
While it was true the colonists just ignored these and other decrees that were not enforced, it did signify a change in the thinking of Mexican politicians. The passive culture of the Mexicans was beginning to feel the pressure from the more dynamic culture of the colonists. The politicians in power were changing. They were beginning to think they needed to halter and saddle their Texas territory before they lost it. They were unaware the barn door was already open and the "Texas mustang" was not waiting idly in its stable to be saddled.
The clash of cultures was inevitable. Mexicans in power felt they should have the obedience given to the Spanish before them, while the Americans had a revolution to settle the liberty issue and expected to bring it to Texas.
Matters in Mexico were constantly changing. An election in 1828 resulted in the men elected being overthrown by those who lost. They, in turn, were overthrown by internal dissension. Between May, 1833, and August, 1855, the Mexican Presidency changed hands thirty six times! Through most of those years, Texas was an important issue and, therefore, a large contributing factor to this dissension. Most of the friction came from the clash of cultures and politics. Mexico was drifting toward authoritarianism and Texas was not going along.
The Mexican election of 1828 and its aftermath worried Texans, particularly those who were working to make Texas a separate state from Coahuila. A few Texans were pointing to the evolvement of Centralists viewpoints and called for Texas to separate from Mexico. All Texans cherished their autonomy and independence which they modeled after the United States. General Terán in his report wrote the Americans "carry their Constitution in their pockets."
Terán moved to strengthen the garrisons at the Alamo, Nacogdoches, and Goliad. Vicente Filisola, who received a grant on the south bank of the Sabine River above Nacogdoches, was to command at La Baha; Domingo de Ugartachea commanded at Velasco, Irishman Juan Bradburn at Anahuac. In addition, Terán built five new garrisons, three of which had pointedly ancient Mexican names: Tenoxititlan, on the Brazos River at the crossroads of the San Antonio and Nacogdoches roads; Anahuac, at the mouth of the Trinity River; and Lipantitlan, at the mouth of the Nueces River. The others were: Lavaca, on the Lavaca River; and Terán, on the Nueces River, where Colonel Peter Ellis Bean was placed in command. General Teran also told Bean to prevent adventurers from entering Texas at Punt Pacana (Pecan Point).
Another disturbing proclamation from Mexico was the banishment of slavery. Not all the conservative ire was aimed at the colonies; Mexico also decided to rid itself of the last vestiges of Spanish influence by expelling all Spaniards. Both were so decreed, and both decrees were acted upon initially. That is, they were promulgated and threats were made; but they were not enforced. Stephen F. Austin warned the new regulations would not stop immigration into Texas; it would only dissuade the men of property. It would not dissuade those "...ardent, inexperienced, hot-headed youth piping from college, or ignorant, self-willed 'mobbish' mountaineers and frontiersmen who 'hold to lynch law' and damning those who are in office merely because they are in office ..."
Austin was right! It is estimated the number of colonists in Texas at the time of the promulgation of the new laws and policies was about 10,000. Three years later the settlers in Texas doubled to more than 20,700, most all of them from the United States. Most of them planned to become Texas property owners, one way or another.