(glossary of terms used by the author, and not necessarily by Noah Webster, Funk and/or Wagnall)

abolition - the complete destruction or removal of anything

abolitionist - persons wanting to abolish slavery

Acadia - a part of Nova Scotia when it was a French colony

Acadians - the people from Acadia and their descendants who travelled to Louisiana

accede - to agree to, give consent, or concede

accoutered - decked out, equipped and furnished especially with all regalia and finery polished and primped

acquiesce - to yield, accept

acquisition - something obtained

Adaesaños - the name for the residents of Los Adaes

ad interim - Latin for "in the meantime" used to designate temporary holders of office

Adjutant - a staff officer assigned administrative duties, usually correspondence

Adjutant General - the chief officer in charge of a militia

adventurer - one who puts themselves at risk for gain

agent - a representative, sometimes undercover

albeit - conceding the fact (all be it)

alcalde - chief administrative and judicial official of a town in Spanish administrations, roughly quivalent to a mayor

alderman - member of a city legislative body (council)

alienate - to make withdrawn, unfriendly or hostile

alliterative - a repetition of initial sounds in two consecutive, words, such as; two ton, wild and wholly

amenities - pleasant, agreeable, all the trimmings, extras, or civil behavior

amiable - congenial, likeable

amnesty - to forgive or overlook, usually by government or military for a person's actions contrary to law

anglicized - to make more English like, as in changing one's name voluntarily or involuntarily

Anglo - originally it meant of or relating to the English, it has been corrupted to a broader meaning in Spanish speaking America to mean a Caucasian inhabitant of the

United States, or a non-Latin

antebellum - existing before the war, in U. S. history meaning before the Civil War or War Between the States

anti-clerical - against church or clergy

appellate system - courts organized to review and with the power to change or nullify other tribunal's decisions

arbitrament - a judgement

arbitrary - depending on random choice or discretion with out reason, unreasonable, with caprice

archives - where historical records are stored

archivist - individual in charge of archives

aristocracy - government by a privileged class, sometimes means the privileged class or people with money, property, and education

armada - Spanish for a fleet of warships

armistice - suspension of hostilities, usually temporary until a permanent peace settlement can be worked out

arroyo - Spanish for a creek or stream especially with water-carved sides as in a gully

ascendancy - inheritable order of succession, controlling influence

assimilate - to absorb into the cultural tradition of a larger population, to make similar

atoms - smithereens, bits, tiny pieces

atrocities - the result of extreme brutal, cruel, or wicked behavior, horrors

audiencia - Spanish for a court usually of law with a counseling role as well, a hearing

autonomous- self governing, stand alone, self sufficient or self managing

auxiliares - Spanish for reserve military units

ayuntamientos - Spanish city officials, like a city council

back burner - a status given something being delayed or given a low priority

bad seas - stormy waters

Badeños - descendants of the soldiers that were stationed at La Bahía through the years

bahia - Spanish for bay or small gulf

bar - a deposit of silt at the mouth of a river where fresh water mixes with salt water

bar pilot - one who guides ships past and/or around submerged sand bars at the entrance to a river or harbor

Baratarians - The pirates of Jean Lafitte when they lived in the Gulf of Barataria area of Louisiana

Baron - a title honoring a minor nobleman; others in succession, going up, include Count, Earl, Marquis or Duke

battlements - a wall or parapet with open spaces to fire weapons through

bayou - French word taken from an Indian word for creek or small river

Bear Republic - California independence movement led by John Charles Frémont that featured a flag with a bear

beat - as in "beat a drum", a drum roll used to call a meeting or to assemble troops to make announcements or call for volunteers

beegum - tall stovepipe type hat, like a top hat

belle of the South - popular and beautiful young woman of the South, usually of a society family

bench mark - point of reference, often a standard

bereft - without

berth (ship) - resting place

bishop - a rank in an organized church having authority to ordain, confirm and govern pastors

bivouac - temporary encampment, an overnight camp

biennium - a period of two years

blackjack sand - a blackish sand in which you sink and it seems to hold you, it takes effort to move free of it

blarney - skillfully flattery, originally believed to be a gift of gab attained when one kissed a certain stone found at Blarney Castle in Cork, Ireland

blockade- an attempt to prevent ships from entering or leaving a port

blockade runner - a ship/boat/person attempting to enter or leave a port

bolt - in politics, to abandon a convention or party usually to set up a rival convention or party, to run off

bootlegger - a person who makes or sells alcoholic beverages without paying taxes

bomb proof - bomb shelter

bond (in) - a binding agreement, a formal obligation between parties until formalized by a license, certification or ceremony

bondage - servitude, subjugation, tenure of service

Bourbon - a French royal family, representatives of which ruled Spain during several periods.

bower - an attractive retreat, as in a garden, made with tree boughs or twisted vines.

breastwork- temporary fortification

Breton - of or relating to Brittany, France

brig - short for brigantine, a type of sailing ship; a guardhouse, or other temporary place of confinement such as on a ship

brogue - an Irish accent

Brythonic - see Goidelic

buckskin - soft pliable leather clothes, usually of deerskin

bureaucracy - a form of government featuring many offices, and therefore a lot of administration and its accompanying "red tape"

by-word - a noteworthy, notorious or frequently used word or phrase

Cabildo - Spanish for town council

caballada - Spanish for horse herd

cacophony - discordant noise

commissariat - a department of an army concerned with supplies, equipment, food, stores, and transport

canister - the casing that holds shot, small metal pellets, for close range artillery fire

cannonade- heavy artillery fire

canvass - to examine in detail such as votes in an election

Captain General- a rank under Viceroy in Spanish colonialism, usually in control of vast or important areas of the viceroyalty

Carmelite - a member of the Roman Catholic religious community, Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel

Carpetbagger - literally a person who carried all their possessions in an inexpensive traveling bag made of carpet, used to describe Yankee opportunists who took

advantage of the conquered South.

casualty - a term used by the military to describe a person who is no longer available due to being killed, captured or wounded

cassock - ankle length garment, often with a hood worn by religious orders

caste system - social classes of rank and privilege

cathedral - a church that is the official seat of a diocesan bishop

Caucasian - of or relating to a person of European ancestry

Caucasoid- same as above

caucus - a meeting of delegates or persons of similar feeling before an official meeting to determine strategy

cause cèlébre - notorious incident or episode with widespread, excited interest

causeway - a raised way across water or wet lands

Celt - a member of any of several tribes with converging or linked traditions and language

Celtic - of or relating to the Celts

cenotaph - a monument erected to honor a person whose remains are elsewhere

Centennial (Texas) - one hundred year anniversary of its establishment (1936)

centralism - a form of government or power and control that is concentrated in a central authority

centralist - a believer in centralism

centrist- one who holds a moderate view

chagrin - disappointment, embarrassment, humiliation

chaplain - military clergyman

chargé d'affaires- substitute for an Ambassador or Minister but accredited by the host government to act as a representative of the sending government

chicanery - deception with artful subterfuge or trickery

circuitous- round about, indirect

circumstantial - dependent on circumstances or non essential details

clandestine - secret, hidden

coalition- temporary alliance

collateral - secondary, indirect

colonialism - a system of colonizing, see colony and colonist

colonists - a body of people living in a colony

colony - an area in new territory retaining ties to a parent state

combatants- one engaged or about to be engaged in combat, fighters

commissariat - one who provides through a commissary system, commissary administrator

commissary - a store for equipment, supplies and provisions issued free to the organization it supports or for a wholesale fee, not 0pen to public

Commandante- Spanish for commander

compact- an agreement similar to a treaty

comptroller - a government official who controls spending of funds

confederacy- a league or alliance

confiscated - seized or appropriated by force or writ

conscription - compulsory enrollment of men into military service

conquistador - a leader in the Spanish conquest of Mexico or South and Central America

conspicuous - obvious, noticeable

constituency - people involved in or served by an elected representative

consul - an official appointed by a government to represent its commercial interests in another country

consultation - people coming together to discuss common issues

Continental Army - the army of the Continental Congress and led by George Washington in the American Revolution

contingent - dependent or conditioned on; a quota, or number of; unit (military)

contraband - ill gotten goods

convalesce - heal, recover, grow in strength

convention - an assembly of representatives meeting for a common purpose

cordon - to rope off, isolate; a line of men or police

Cornish - of or pertaining to Cornwall, England

Cornwall - peninsula of southwest England, also a County on the peninsula

Corregidore - Sheriff, or magistrate (Spanish)

corregimiento - office and jurisdiction of a Corregidore

corrigenda - errors found in a printed work after printing and corrected and included in the bound edition as an appendix

corrigendum - a single error, treated as in corrigenda

Cortes - Spanish Parliament

cotton clad - a steamship using cotton bales and timbers as breastworks

countenance - demeanor, bearing, face

counterpane - embroidered quilt

coup - take over, or brilliant act

coursing - pouring fast, flowing quickly, running swiftly

court - as in a King's court, the officers and advisors assembled, later the room of assembly

credibility - believability, worthy of belief, esteem or praise

creole - a person of European (usually French or Spanish) descent born in the Americas

criollo - Spanish for creole

cross the bar - to get over the sand bar blocking the entrance to a harbor or river entrance

crossed `t's and dotted `i's - very thorough

crucifix - a representation of Christ on the cross

culture - dynamic development of intellectual, moral and aesthetic faculties; often used to discern differences between peoples in place or time

curate - a clergy man in charge of a parish

curried - groomed, favored, flattered

de facto - by fact, in fact, of fact

de jure - by law, in law, of law

Deguello - A Moorish tune indicating no prisoners will be taken, throats will be slit

department - a territorial division of a province (Spanish)

depot - a place for the deposit of goods

deploy - to extend in width, to spread out or place in position, set up

deprivation - an act or instance of denying or withholding

descent - descending from, derived from, lineage

desertion - to leave without intending to return though it is expected

despicable - worthless, obnoxious or despised enough to rouse moral indignation

despot - a ruler with absolute power and authority

despotic - having the characteristics of a despot

despotism - rule by a despot

destabilize - to make unstable, unorganized or unfirm

detachment - a smaller group of the whole commanded by an officer sent on a mission or seperated for a purpose

disconsolate - dejected, downcast

disdain - scorn

disenfranchise - to take away privileges or rights

disinterested conduct - divested of special interest, above reproach

dispossessed - deprived, put out of possession

district - an administrative division of a department (Spanish)

domain - territory dominated or controlled

double time - to move at twice normal speed, to speed up

dragoons - a mounted military unit, heavily armed

draft - see conscription also, in nautical terms, it refers to the depth at which a boat/ship can operate

duty - a tax

duplicitous - see duplicity

duplicity - contradictory intentions, two-faced, appearing to favor one side but working for another

dynamic - a continuous productive activity effected by two or more elements interacting

ego - what one thinks of themselves, self perception

egregious - flagrant

Eire - Ireland

ejidos - communal Indian lands

El Camino Real - the King's highway, a road from Mexico City to Los Adaes, capitol of early Spanish Texas

elan - vigorous spirit or enthusiasm accompanied with poise and verve

electors - one qualified to vote, a member of the Electoral College

elegiac - of or relating to a poem or elegy for the dead

embark - to board a boat or airplane

Emerald Isle - Ireland

emigrate - to leave one's country for residence elsewhere

emolument - returns arising from office, perquisites, compensation

emplacements - prepared positions

empresario - empresarios (from the Spanish word empresa for enterprise or venture) were businessmen or land speculators granted large blocks of land in exchange

for an oath of allegiance to the State. The empresario was to bring in settlers to whom he would give a portion of his grant. The empresario was to insure his land grant

was settled by people who fit the Spanish profile of the "right kind of colonists." This meant they were to be people of character and Catholic. If the empresario were to

complete his colony in the agreed time, he would receive lands based on the performance of his responsibilities.

encomiendas - estates of the conquistadors utilizing Indian slave labor

encompassed - included

encroachment - to advance beyond usual or proper limits

enmity - hatred

enroute - on or along the way

entities - things, self contained, such as a states or organizations

entourage - followers, attendants, associates

entrenchment - strong defensive positions

environs - surroundings

episcopal powers - authority of the or a bishop

Erin - Ireland

espousing - promising, supporting

ethnic - of or pertaining to a group of people with distinctive characteristics such as ancestry, language, religion, culture or national origin

ethnicity - feelings of or relative to race, culture or peoples, sometimes nation if of one culture

evinced - revealed

exile - enforced removal of a person from their own country or a person who choses to leave, unable to live in his/her own country for whatever reason

expatriate - individual of one country living elsewhere

facade - false or superficial front or appearance

fait accompli - an acommplished fact

false balance sheet - a statement of account forced to equal a predetermined set of numbers

fauna - animal life

Federalism - a form of government where political units surrender individual sovereignty to a central authority

Federalist - one who supports federalism

feint - a diversionary or "false" attack meant to draw attention away from the main thrust or attack

fervor - warm, steady, intense feeling or expression

feted - honored, praised, celebrated usually with a party, reception or ball

fetters - shackles, chains, restraints

feudal - of or relating to medieval systems

filibuster - In Spanish a filibusteros, in French the term is filibustier and in English filibuster. All these terms refer to an adventurer who engages in private military

action in a foreign country.

flogging - whipping, beating

flora - plant life

flotilla - Spanish for a small fleet of warships

fluid events - events that move quickly often changing direction

forbears - ancestors

ford - a shallow crossing of a stream or river

fork (in road) - division, splitting, branching

founder - one who established

franchise - a privilege

fractious- unruly, breaking apart

fray - fight

Fray - Spanish for Father as in the name for a priest

Fredonia - The name empresario Edward Hayden gave his grant after the Spanish rescinded it and he wished to set up an independent republic. The name was used

before in Kentucky/Tennessee early history for an independence movement.

Fredonians - supporters of Hayden Edwards in his fight against the Spanish in Texas after his grant was revoked

freemasonry - principles, institutions, or practices of Free Masons a fraternal organization

freighter - drayman, driver of a horsedrawn wagon used to haul freight or goods for hire

friary - a monastery

futile - useless

G. T. T. - Gone To Texas

Gael - a Celt who speaks Goidelic, a particular Celtic language often called Gaelic

Gaelic - the language of the Gaels, a Goidelic Celtic language

garrison - a military post, or as a verb - to station troops

Gachupines - one translation says, it meant wearers of spurs; it was a derogatory term for the Spanish possibly because they rode rough shod over all others the rest.

Another translation of the word is `blockhead'

gatling gun - an early form of the mounted machinegun

Geana Faidhaine - Gaelic for Wild Geese

genealogical - of or pertaining to the study of descent, lineage, or pedigrees

ghetto - an undesirable quarter of a city where a minority population is forced to live because of economic, social, and sometimes legal reasons

gig - a ship's small boat usually with oars but can have sail or a motor

Goidelic speaking - Gaelic speaking Celts, sometimes called Q-speaking to differentiate from Brythonic or P-speaking Gaels based on the use of the qu sound. In

Brythonic it is pronounced as a `p', in Goidelic it retains the `q' sound.

Gold of Philip - Philip of Macedonia bought his Greek enemies when his swords could not defeat them

gourd (canteen) - hard rind of an inedible squash like plant, hollowed and dried to serve as a container

granger - a member of a national fraternal association of farmers called The Grange

grant - privilege, permit, gift (of land in Spanish and Mexican Texas

grape (shot) - small metal pellets or balls

Green Emerald Isle - Ireland

gregarious - sociable

gringo - Spanish for foreigner or stranger, it has come to be a disparaging term for English or Americans

grito - Spanish for cry or shout for revolt

guardian - one who has the care of a person or property of another

Guggenheim Fellow - a scholar or artist funded by the Guggenheim Memorial Foundation


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