Celtic Connection Glossary N - S

Nacogdochens - citizens of Nacogdoches

Natchez Trace - a pioneer road from Nashville, Tennessee to Natchez, Mississippi; it was used by travelers from all points up the Ohio River Valley to Pittsburgh.

nationalism- loyalty and devotion to a nation

negative population growth - declining, or zero growth in population

neutral ground - no man's land, an agreed buffer zone between parties where neither has control

neutrality - the quality or state of being neutral (non-aligned)

Neuva España- The Spanish Viceroyalty of New Spain that included; the SW U. S., Mexico, Central America north of Panama, the West Indies, and the Philippines

New Philippines- a one time designation for that part of Nueva España that became Texas

nimrod- a hunter

normal school - a school where high school graduates were trained as teachers

Normandy- a region, peninsula, and former province of northwest France

Norse - of or relating to ancient Scandinavia

norteamericanos - North Americans (Spanish)

notorious - widely known and unfavorably held

ocular - perceived by eye, of or relating to what has been seen

offshoot- lateral branch, descendant

oidores - judges (Spanish)

old codger- crusty and eccentric oldtimer

old sod - one's original country or that of his/her ancestors

Old Three Hundred- the name for the first 297 families to settle in Austin's first colony

opportunists - one who takes advantage of favorable opportunity or circumstance

orator - formal and elaborate speaker

ordained - invested with ministerial or priestly authority

ordnance - military supplies weapons and ammunition, especially artillery but not limited to it.

Ordnance Board- a U. S. Army organization charged with inspecting equipment, particularly weapons and ammunition; and to certify their serviceability or condemnation

outpost - an outlying position posted forward of the main unit, a military base on the frontier, or on another's territory by treaty or agreement

overseer- supervisor

P-Celtic speaking - see Brythonic

packet boat/ship- a regularly scheduled vessel delivering goods and/or passengers on an announced route

padre- Spanish for father or priest

Palatine - either of two districts in SW Germany along the Rhine River

paranoia- delusions of prosecution or grandeur

parish - in Louisiana, similar to a county, otherwise the area comprising people who attend a particular church

parishioners- a member or inhabitant of a parish

parley - to confer or a conference

parochial - of or relating to a church parish; limited in range and scope

parties unknown- persons or organizations not identified

patron - protector, supporter, one who uses their wealth and/or influence to benefit another

patron saint - a saint to whom supplicants pray for support; organizations, even countries have identified themselves with a patron saint invoking his/her protection

patronym - a named derived from paternal ancestors

Peninsulares - inhabitants, or people born on the Iberian peninsula

perennial - annual, persisting

phenomenon - a rare event or thing of significance

pickets- in military usage a forward line of men spaced widely apart to provide an early warning of any enemy approaches

pillage- plunder, loot

piqued- transient feeling of wounded vanity, irritated

Plan of Iguala - The plan presented by Agustín de Iturbide to Viceroy Odonoju calling for Mexico (including Central America without Panama) to be an independent monarchy under a European prince; the Roman Catholic Church was to retain its powers; Creoles and Gachupines were to have equal rights; and there was to be no confiscation of property

planters- owners of plantations or large estates or farms

platform- statement of a groups, usually a party, for the laws and policy's it supports and those it will repeal

plenipotentiary- invested with full power

plurality- in elections, the greatest number of votes, but less than a majority

portend- bode, indicate through an omen or sign

port of entry- port at which taxes are collected

pounder(s) - refers to the maximum weight cannonball capable of being fired from a cannon.

practicable- feasible

pragmatic- practical

preamble- an introductory statement

precinct- an administrative territorial division of a city or county

precipitated - caused; throw down

preclude - prevent, to make impossible by necessary consequences

prepossessing manner - creating a favorable impression

presidio- fort (Spanish)

primary- in elections, an election held by a party to select candidates for a general election

primp- dress, adorn, to arrange in a careful and finicky manner

privateer- a ship-owner using his vessel in the service of a nation

prize (ship) - a seized or captured ship

progenitors - direct line ancestors

promulgation - publicly making known usually through printed notice

proration - the limitation of the production of crude oil or natural gas to a fraction of its capability

protectorate - government by protector, a dependent state

proverb - a brief popular epigram or maxim

provisional - temporary

Prussia - a former kingdom and state of Germany

pseudotranslation - an interpretative, but false, interpretation

pulque - an acholic beverage (Spanish)

prurient nature - man's base desires and sexual drive, lasciviousness

put to the sword - kill

quadrangle - an open area surrounded on four sides by buildings or walls as in a fort

quandary - a state of perplexity or doubt

quarantine - isolation, such as blocking entry to a port

quarterboat - a boat kept on the quarterdeck of a ship, a gig

quartered - housed, divided into four parts

quash - crush, annul

rail hub - a central connector point with rail lines emanating in all directions

rambunctious - unruly, uncontrollably exuberant

ranchero - ranch hand (Spanish)

rancho - ranch (Spanish)

rapacity - excessive grabbing and/or groping, living on prey

raison d'être - French for- the reason for existence

ratified - sanctioned formally, confirmed

rebuffed - refused sharply, checked

recon - short for reconnoitre, reconnaissance preliminary survey for information, scouting

reconnoitre - to make a reconnaissance

referendum - submitting to a popular vote

regalia - decorations, insignia, emblems, costume or uniform and other paraphernalia indicating an office or membership in a special organization

Regent - one who rules in place of a monarch; member of a ruling board

Regidores - aldermen, city councilmen (Spanish)

regime - a government in rule or a period of power

rein in - to control

reins (of government, or of a Chief) - controlling or guiding power

reminiscences - to call to mind a past or series of past experiences

replete - to abundantly provide, complete

Republican (Mexican) - a supporter of strong individual states or provinces versus a strong central authority

repudiated - to refuse to have anything to do with, to reject as unauthorized

requital - compensation, retaliation, revenge

retribution - the receiving or dispensing of punishment or reward, distribution of just deserts

rifled (gun barrel) - spiral grooves cut into the bore of a rifle to increase muzzle velocity

right of deposit - in 1795 the Spanish reopened the Mississippi to American trade by granting the right of deposit of U. S. goods [the off loading from

ships at and movement through New Orleans for three years (Pinckney's Treaty)].

righteousness - conformity to divine or moral law, or belief that one is

rogue - mischievous person, also a vagrant

rosary - a string beads used in counting prayers

Roscius - a first rate actor, named for Roman actor Quintas Roscius

row - fight, quarrel

Royalist (Mexican) - a supporter of the spanish monarchy

ruddy - a healthy reddish color

rump convention - a meeting of members from a larger convention who finding themselves in a minority, organize their own convention elsewhere

Runaway Scrape - that period in Texas history just after the fall of the Alamo when Texans learned Sam Houston was retreating, many of them left in mid-meal or task to pack their belongings and families out of Texas and harms way.

sabre - a cavalry sword

sally - rush forward

sang froid - composed, nonchalance, coolness (French)

schooner - a two masted sailing ship

secession - formal withdrawal

secular - not controlled by a church

siege guns - heavy artillery

self-ordained - self invested with ministerial duties

seminary - an institution for the training of candidates for the priesthood

settlement - a small village or community

sextant - an instrument used to navigate with celestial bodies using angles to determine latitude and longitude

shank's mare - walking

sharpshooters - marksmen

shaughran - from the Gaelic word `seachran', the meaning is varied; vagabond, stray, to stray, wander, and wanderer. I believe Dane (the Union officer captured by Lt. Dick Dowling, used it to mean - rogue, as in a mischievous boy

shot (artillery) - small metal balls, pellets, or just pieces

sic - intentionally written, reproduced as in the original document, errors and all

signalmen - men with signal flags, semaphores

sitio - a unit of area, 4428 acres (Spanish)

six shooter - revolver

six flags over Texas - a term meaning the principal flags that flew over Texas; Spain, France, Texas Republic, U. S., Confederate

skedaddle - to run away

skirmishers - a line of military infantry men advancing and putting pressure on the enemy

sloop - one masted sailing ship

smooth bore - not rifled

sojourn - short trip or stay

sorry - poor quality, ineffective

sovereignty - supreme power over a body politic

spangled - bedecked with glittering or shiny material

spanish yoke - a type of wooden form used to join two oxen at the neck for the purpose of pulling a wagon or plow

spanishcized - to make or appear spanish like

sparring - practice boxing, to gesture without landing a blow so as to create an opening

sparse, sparsely - thinly, meager, few and scattered

specious - showy with deceptive allure, a false look of truth or genuineness

speculative - theoretical, gamble, guess

spiked (canon) - to disable by driving a spike into the vent on muzzle loaded cannon, later simply to disable

spurred - urged on, stimulated

spy glass - small telescope

squatters - people who settle on property without right, title, or having paid rent

staccato - disjointed, disconnected

staging area - an assembly point for organizing a movement of men and/or goods

stake - money, an interest or share, financial support

stark - utter, blunt, barren

stationed - troops posted or assigned at a location

steppes - vast, treeless tracts in SE Europe, north of the Caucasus mountains

stock - heritage, ancestry

stockman - rancher, one who raises stock to sell

subdelgados - subordinates (Spanish)

subtle - obscure, elusive, with undertones

succor - relief, help

suffrage - the right to vote

super structure - the structural part of a ship above the main deck

switch cane - wild sugar cane

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