The Black Sea Greeks still exist after 3,000 years. For more on the Black Sea Greeks and what happened to them click on this link

We know Partholon had a Sicilian wife by the name of Deqlgn ait, so perhaps that is the "Greece" to which they fled. Or, perhaps they moved there in stages, first to Asia Minor and then to Greece proper and then to Sicily. We do know they travelled extensively and had many adventures. At some point, the Partholonians left "Greece" to settle on a large island in the Atlantic Ocean indentified as Ireland. Parthalon, and about 1,000 of his followers, landed in what is now County Donegal.

The Parthlanians found a people already in Ireland. Their leader was said to come from Slaibh Ughmoir, which in ancient Gaedhelic (an early form of Gaelic also seen as Goidelic) meant The Caucasus. Nothing more is said of these peoples. They either withdrew from the area controlled by the Partholanians or were assimilated. The Partholanians remained in Ireland for hundreds of years.

Over the years the Partholanians came into contact with sea-raiders who terrorized the Partholanians with attacks for supplies. These people were called Fomorians. Many battles were fought over the years with these sea-raiders. There is not much else known about the Partholanians other than the fact they fell victim to a terrible plague in their third century in Ireland. Over 9,000 Partholanians died. The survivors lived on another 30 years and then the group is lost to history.

As the last Partholanians were passing into history, another group in Scythia left for Greece. These peoples were related to the Partholanians. Their leader Nemed, was also a descendant of Scythes, Fathochta and Seara. His father, Aduam Bau was known as the "Scythian Greek". Perhaps one of the Partholanian survivors made it back to Scythia to create interest in Ireland. Whatever the reason, these people of Scythia were called Nemedians after their leader Nemed. Nemed, like Partholan before him, led his people to Greece and then to Ireland.

THE NEMEDIANS

They too had to defend themselves from the Fomorians. The Fomorians, at the time of the Nemedians, lived on Tory island (located off County Donegal). Tory Island was a staging area for the Fomorians who were from Fomoria, an ancient name for Scandanvia. The Fomorians raided the Nemedians for food and supplies exacting tribute of children, corn and milk. After a raid they would return to a Tory Island and take refuge in a fortification they built called Conann's Tower.

After many years of this, the Nemedians pursued the Fomorians to Tory Island. A battle ensued. The leader of the Fomorians, Conann, was killed and the Fomorians withdrew. The oral tradition notes that a leader called Fergus was said to be one of three kings of Nemed who destroyed Conann's Tower. The problem with the Fomorians occured cyclically.

Unfortunately the Nemedians were not as successful with their next foe, a plague.

Like the Partholanians before them, the Nemedians were close to being wiped out by the disease. Some of the Nemedians escaped the pestilence and returned to Greece, or Greek Scythia..

THE FIRBOLG

In about 1400 BC, there was in Greece a tribe, thought to be Celts, known as the Fir-Bolg, also seen as Firbolg and Firvolgians. The Firbolg were the descendants of the Nemedian survivors. They were enslaved in Greece. They worked as laborers for over 300 years. They were used to draw clay from the lowlands to manure the lands above. They carried the earth in bags, hence their name, Firbolg, which means "men of bags." They were considered outsiders as they were known to be descended from a migrant people originally displaced from Greek Scythia.

The Firbolgs kept alive the stories of the green island where their antecedants had lived unfettered. Over time, a movement grew among the Firbolg to attempt a return to that island. They plotted their escape. At the right moment, in about 1400 B. C., stealing Greeks ships, about 5,000 Firbolg set sail for Ireland. They landed at Blackrod Bay in northwest Ireland in what is today the Barony of Erris in County Mayo.

The Firbolgs organized, under their leader, Slainge, a kingdom with Tara as its center. They divided the land for three sub-tribes. The Fir Domnann lived in what became Connacht and Munster, the Galion in Leinster and the Fir bolg in Ulster. For a number of years the Firbolg were left undisturbed except for occasional raids from the Fomorians.

Ireland flourished under the Fir Bolg. They established an administration, a civilisation and a kingdom. The Fir Bolg appeared to be immune for the epidemic diseases which decimated their predecessors and, some occasional raids aside, even the Fomorians seemed to resign themselves to share the land. Together with the Fomorians the Fir Bolg defeated several invading tribes. Not only in war, but also in love the Fir Bolg and Fomorians entered into marriages and alliances as a result of those marriages.

Science has long identified the early Bronze Age of Ireland as the 23rd through the 18th century BC, the exact period of Firbolg domination of the land.
By definition, the Bronze Age was identified by the use of copper and tin for making items of bronze. Ireland was fortunate in having a successful farming community that could make available sufficient quantities to feed the non-farming miners and metal craftsmen. Copper was widely scattered throughout the land, but Bronze Age miners found the most productive mining areas to be in the south-western counties of Cork and Kerry. There, Galician stone inscriptions attest to considerable contact with Iberia. For it was from Iberia and Cornwall that the precious tin was exported as that was one commodity Ireland did not possess.

During the Early Bronze Age, the metal industry was stimulated by the demands of her own population as well as overseas. An expanding international trade brought contact with overseas artisans and Ireland was quick to take advantage as her traders and traveling artisans plied much of Europe. The style and quality of gold work made a quantum leap forward. Irish and Irish-style products of this era such as the lunalas and gold sundiscs, bronze knives, daggers and axes, and copper halberds been found throughout western and central Europe, including Scandinavia, Crete and Iberia. Return trade brought Portuguese daggers and axes, Baltic amber, glass and faience beads from the eastern Mediterranean.

Though the numbers of the Bronze Age Firbolg were apparently small, the pre-existing Neolithic farmers proved willing pupils and adapted quickly. There was no sudden economic or cultural revolution. Rather a gradual transition took place. As new tools became available and new ideas were absorbed, the landscape and life itself seemed to take on a new quality a new freshness. At first, Neolithic settlements, with their pottery styles and burial traditions continued even as metal-working spread through the country. However, it didn't take long for a Bronze Age culture to begin flourishing. Mining, metal-working and farming made increased demands on available resources. The growing population increased the need for tillable soil and pasture. As a result, the woodlands began to show considerable reduction in some areas. At the same time, new metallurgical, pottery and jewelry production and design techniques were being brought in through trade contacts, while simultaneously, Irish bronze and gold manufactured items began to be exported into a growing international market.

Social and commercial relations between the peoples of the of the Iberian Peninsula and those of Brittany and the British Islands date back to very remote times. Trade in tin between Ireland and Galicia was already established during the late Neolithic, and the similarities in thousands of stone tombs found all along the coasts of Atlantic Europe could indicate that those contacts existed during the period of megalith construction as well . These ancient connections continued during the Bronze Age, when a well-defined socio-cultural and commercial zone called the Atlantic Façade, Area, or Province included Ireland, the Isle of Man, Scotland, Wales, the Cornish Peninsula, Armorica (Brittany), Gaul and Galicia in Spain, and lasted for at least three millennia. For more on Brittany (Amorica in Roman times), Galacia and other Celts in Spain as well as Celts in Britain and the possibility of Belgium Celts in Ireland use this link. There also follows other alternate thinking about the origins of the Irish and therefore the Morans >

During this period not only were Fir Bolgs (Fir Domnann and Galion) trading and travelling to these places but the Irish ports had representatives from their trading partners living there.

In the reign of the seventh successive king after Slainge, Eochaidh, bigger problems developed for the Firbolg when another Celtic tribe (also with a Scythian connection) known as the Tuatha De Danann (People of the Goddess Dana) challenged the Firbolg for Ireland. The de Dannnan people were more civilized and cultured than the warrior tribe of Firbolgs.

THE DE DANANN

The De Danann originated in Scythia, they were descended from a relative of the Partholonians and like them and the Nemedians, they moved to Greece. Unlike the others, they absorbed much of the Greek culture before moving northward. Other historians say they were also survivors of the Nemedians who chose not to live in Greece. Either way, these people learned many new techniques such as smelting, agriculture and government as they drifted northward across Europe. They eventually settled in Denmark, where they adopted a new religion becoming followers of the goddess Danu. From this experience they derived a new name, the Tuatha De Danann. Word came to them of mutual descendants, the Fir Bolg, finding an island in the Atlantic and making it their land. The De Danann decided to share or challenge their relatives for the island. From Denmark they invaded Britain and then later moved on into Ireland via Ulster.

A number of battles ensued with the the Firbolgs. The major battle took place at Southern Moytura on the border between County Galway and County Mayo. The De Danann were victorious but left the Firbolg that part of Ireland they first settled (roughly what became Connacht and the offshore islands). The De Danannn took the rest of Ireland for themselves. A group of Firbolgs unable to live with this situation left for Alba (Scotland).

The De Dannan called Ireland: Inis Fail, Island of Destiny after the Lia Fail, a remarkable stone they brought with them which was known as the Stone of Destiny. Upon this stone, kings of Ireland were crowned.

There was some tolerance, even intermarriages, between the Firbolg and the De Dannan. Perhaps it was because of the shared Greek or Scythian experience, or the fact both groups were possibly descended from Nemed.

After 197 years, the De Dannan were in turn challenged for control of Inis Fail by still another people with a Greek, Scythian and a Celtic connection, the Milesians.

The next section, known as the Milesian Legend, is not accepted by all historians (as you can tell if you took a look at the last link). It is known the Milesians altered some of the history to benefit their story and legacy. Though most scholars still do accept the Milesian legend as possible and probable, there is a growing body of historians who question it. They find it easier to accept, with qualifications an alternate view known as the O'Rahilly Model. To view the O'Rahilly Model use this link. >

THE MILESIANS

according to historian Hannah D. Pittman, the Milesians were originally from East Scythia and were a part of a tribe known as the Massagetae. Historians, William and Mary Durning, whose genealogies of the earliest lines are shown in Appendix VII, show these people to be descended from Scythes through Baath (or Baoth) who was a brother of Fathochta, from whom the Partholonians and Nemedians descended. The Milesians were further descended from Baath's son Feinius Farsaidh who was King of the Scythians in 1700 B.C. The Milesians, like the Partholanians, Nemedians and De Dannan before them, left Scythia for "Greece."

The tribe that became the Milesians were located in Greek Scythia ( I have always thought it an odd coincidence that most of the Greek colonies on the Black Sea were founded by the Ionic city of Melitus whose people were called Milesians) . The Melisians we are talking about were originally called the Gaedhal from the name of a remote ancestor, Gaodhal Glas, of Greek Scythia who was said to be a contemporary of Moses. Some historians say the terms `gael' and `Gaelic' originate from his name. Legend has it that when Gaodhal Glas was bitten by a snake, Moses cured him and told him that no serpent of other poisonous thing would infest the happy western island his posteriety would one day inhabit.

The Gaedhal were a highly prized people respected for their skills. They were invited by a Pharoah to come to Egypt.

Neill (also seen as Niul), a grandson of of Gaodhal Glas, became an instructor and counselor to a Pharaoh of Egypt. He later married the Pharaoh's daughter, Scota. After a time, Neill and his family left Egypt because of problems with a suceeding Pharaoh. To insure his reign, the new Pharaoh was killing all his potential rivals.

The Gaels, under Neill, left at the same time Moses led his people from Egypt. Moses led his people on foot to Cannan while Neill travelled by boat to Crete and then to a number of other places before settling in Spain. The family stayed for many years in Spain mixing with the locals and other Celtic tribes and forming a Celtiberian culture. A leader emerged by the name of Miled or Milesius (also seen as Gallamh or Golamh) who was born in about 1060B.C.

Milesius was a Gael born in Spain. He was a warrior and a veteran of the Celtiberians wars that occured with the different Celtic tribes that migrated into the Iberian peninsula. Milesius, aware of his royal Scythian connection, traveled with thirty ships of his best troops back to Scythia to assist in a forgotten war. The Scythian King, Reffloir, welcomed Milesius and his men. Milesius stayed several years in Scythia, at one point leading the army of Reffloir. When it came time for the Celtiberians to return to Spain they sailed into the Mediterranean and stopped in Thrace, Crete and Egypt before sailing into the Atlantic. Their sense of adventure was not yet slaked because the Celtiberians went on to Denmark, Scotland and Ireland before returning home to Spain.

Entering Spain, he found it besieged by Goths and after 54 battles cleared them from Spain. While Milesius was administering his domain in Spain, he began to think of moving his people to Ireland. He sent his nephew, Ith, to reconoiter Ireland. Ith and his men were received hospitably by the De Dananns but then were attacked by them when the De Dananns understood the reason for the visit. Ith was killed. His men were able to withdraw from the De Danann and carried his body back to Spain.

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