COMPASS POLITICS

Before the war with Mexico was won, politicians North and South were jockying for position on an issue that would eventually divide the nation ...slavery. The issue had first begun to coalesce nationally around the admission of Missouri to the United States. Missouri was a slave state. The 22 United States in 1819 were evenly divided with eleven aligned on each side of the slavery issue. A compromise was made when Maine, a free state, entered the Union with Missouri in an act known as the Missouri Compromise. An amendment was offered to the compromise and passed. It prohibited slavery in the territory remaining in the Louisiana Purchase north of the southern boundary of Missouri. This showed just how desperate the southern position was. To obtain a single slave state they gave up a vast territory (what would become the states of Nebraska, Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota and the principle parts of what would be Colorado and Wyoming) to be organized prohibiting slavery with only what would become part of Oklahoma and Arkansas possibly open to slavery (Florida was still a territory and expected to be organized as a slave state). It can't be said the South counted on territory further west because in 1819, the United States signed a treaty recognizing Spanish ownership of most all the West.

The Texas Revolution changed things and brought the debate again to the U. S. Congress. In 1838, former President and then a Congressman from Massachusetts, John Quincy Adams, filibustered in the United States House of Representatives for 22 hours to kill a proposal to annex Texas. He argued it was morally wrong because it would help perpetuate slavery. The defeat of the first effort to annex Texas by treaty as proposed by Secretary of State John C. Calhoun was defeated in 1844 over the issue of slavery. If it were not for the fact that Oregon offered a balance with regard to the slavery issue, Texas might not have been annexed when it was. That act however brought on the war with Mexico and with the victory more land questions. The biggest question, other than aquiring the territories, was slavery.

Apart from all the pious reasons often given for the North's opposition to slavery there was also a strong economic one. Manufacturers and other industrialists enjoying the economic boon in the newly industrialized North feared that they would be unable to compete in a market that included Southern industrialists who could use slave labor. While it was true the South was not an industrialized society like the North, there were those in the North who could remember when the North was more agrarian and felt it was only a matter of time before parts of the South became industrialized. This is not to take away from any moral argumentss regarding slavery, only to point out that some used the issue of slavery for its emotional value and to be a screen for other reasons. An example can be seen in the story of the Texas gold miners that is just ahead.

The fat was in the fire before the Mexican War was over. A Pennsylvania Congressman, David Wilmot pictured to the left, added an amendment to a war appropriations bill in April of 1846 forbiding slavery in any territory aquired from Mexico. The admendment became known as the Wilmot Proviso. Although it passed in the House of Representatives it failed in the Senate. Over the next several months the debate continued as different State Legislatures passed resolutions regarding the Wilmot Proviso. Northern legislatures endorsed it and Southern legislatures denounced it. It came up again and again during floor debate in the U. S. Congress. Each time it hardened the lines between those for and against it.

The Presidential elections of 1848 gave the United States its first President with no previous political training or experience. This was made possible in large part because of a third party movement.

The Democrats nominated Louis Cass, a man with Irish ties and a friend of Texas. The Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor, one of the heroes of the late war with Mexico. Taylor's family came from those parts of England (southwest) that continued Celtic traditions. Neither of these men wanted any part of the hot potato issue, slavery. Their campaigns ignored the issue. The third party called, the Free Soil Party, nominated former President Martin Van Buren and adopted a platform endorsing the Wilmot Proviso, free homesteads in the West and high tariffs. Most historians agree that the slavery issue, via the Free Soilers, gave the election to Zachary by hurting Cass in traditional Democratic areas, particularly New York.

In 1849, a group of Texans went to the California gold fields to try their luck. They staked out their claims and then had the slaves they brought with them panning for their gold. Other miners resented this. They were working hard for themselves and these Texans had several working for each one of them.

Mass meetings were held. Resolutions passed. They declared that negoes could not own or work a claim. This all happened at a time when California was debating its state constitution in preparation to becoming a state.

It was a miner's representative at the Constitution Convention that proposed an amendment stating that slavery nor involuntary servitude would ever be tolerated in California. Many lessons were learned on both sides of the issue when the amendment passed unanimously.

The next battleground became what is called the Compromise of 1850. The Compromise of 1850 was an agreement between free states and slave states. In the United States of 1849 there were fifteen free states and fifteen slave states. Niether side in the U. S. Congress was willing to allow the other an advantage and thus the compromise. It allowed the entry of California as a free state, while the territories of New Mexico and Utah were allowed to chose for themselves via their state legislatures regarding slavery.

The compromise also provided a stringent law regarding the return of runaway slaves by free states.

The last paragraph would make it appear the South achieved much in the compromise, but since it allowed the entry of one free state and probably one more in Utah (the Mormons, who effectively controlled the territory were anti-slavery), that left only New Mexico with the possibility of entering as a slave state, the South's victory was Pyrric.

In April of 1850, there were articles in several newspapers concerning a possible plot whereby parts of the South would leave the Union and join together with Mexico to form a new republic with its capitol in Mexico City. Follow up stories suggested that Sam Houston was to be the leader of this new country. It appears it was a maneuver designed by somebody in the South to try and get a more respectful understanding of southern positions by the northern politicians. The story was denied by Houston who said he knew nothing of it and by others. It came as quickly as it appeared and there has never been any thing found in the archives of Mexico or personal papers of those said to be involved to give it any validity other than a rumor constructed for political advantage.

The next round was the Kansas - Nebraska Act which most southerners saw as a victory. The United States Senator from Texas, Sam Houston, however, voted against the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. He felt it went against the spirit and form of the Missouri Compromise. It did. The Act's provisions called for the the repeal of the Missouri Compromise's position with regard to reamining parts of the Louisiana Purchase. The Kansas-Nebraska Act was sponsored by Northern Democrats who were eager to get the territory of Nebraska organized. The man behind the bill was Stephen A. Douglas, a Senator from Illinois and a resident of Chicago. Seanator Douglas is pictured to the left. Business interests in Douglas' constituency were vitally interested in building a transcontinental railroad. In order to accomplish this, the areas west, controlled by the Indians, would have to be pacified. By giving the areas territory status and then statehood, pacification would have to be done by the United States government. Douglas, in order to make the bill more attractive to southerners, included the controversial portions of the bill.

The bill said each territory or state could, in their legislatures, vote to determine the slavery issue. To the South, it was a chance to reverse a string of losses on the issue; to some northern Democrats, it was a business opportunity. Most northern Democrats were not really worried about the areas becoming slave. The southern immigrants were still, for the most part, working west down the Natchez Trace into Texas. Texas still had a large frontier left to absorb plenty of immigrants. The areas in question (Kansas and Nebraska) were in the path of northern populations moving west.

President Pierce endorsed the bill. The bill enabling the Kansas - Nebraska Act became law. Northern Democrats were the difference. Nearly all southern members of Congress voted for the issue whether Whig or Democrat. Houston was a notable exception. All northern Whigs voted against it and half the northern Democrats in the House of Representatives.

The Whig Party, had representatives voting on both sides of the issue, was destroyed by the vote. This led to the emergence of a new party, the Republican Party, that was decidedly anti-slavery. One of its leaders would be Abraham Lincoln, who as a Congressman was shocked by the debate and passing of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. He was shocked because he could not believe that America's stated ideal of equality for all, as written in the Declaration of Independence, could be altered by political maneuvering. He reminded the Southerners using the Constitution to justify state's rights and salvery, that the Declaration of Independence was written before the Constitution. He called for the Congress to "re-adopt the Declaration of Independence." His young voice was not heard. It would not be until his Gettysburg Address that Lincoln, as President, would re-align the national thinking and again put the Declaration of Independence ahead of the Constitution.

Sam Houston understood this with his vote in 1854. Houston's vote, out of step with southern wishes but consistent with his own anti-slavery and anti-secession views, led to the Texas legislature informing him they would not nominate him as a candidate for the U.S. Senate (Until the Seventeenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was passed and ratified in 1912-1913, members of the U.S. Senate were elected by state legislators).

Houston then ran for an office in which the people of Texas determined who would be elected. He ran for Governor of Texas. He had to run as an Independent as the Democrats had disavowed him. He lost in the first attempt to Hardin Runnels, but came back again in the next election to win 2 - 1. Houston was elected Governor of Texas in 1859. At his inauguration, Sam Houston gave a speech in which he stated that Texas was not allied with the South or the North "...her connection was not sectional, but national."

The slavery issue continued to override all issues nationally. The Dredd Scott decision of the United States Supreme Court in 1857 declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional. Its ruling stated Congress could not legislate that slavery was to be excluded, that was a decision to be made by local legislatures. Further the Court stated the Bill of Rights did not extend to Blacks, slave or free. Reaction in the South and North was predictably strong both for and against the verdict.

SMOLDERING ...SIMMERING ...

There occurred in October of 1859 an event that shocked the nation. It had its beginnings in the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. When Kansas held an election to determine the question of slavery there were an estimated 1,500 legal votes in the territory, yet there were 6,000 votes cast. Southerners carried people in from other states by the wagon loads to vote for slavery. Kansas Governor Wilson Shannon, was succeeded by John W. Geary, both were Democrats, Irish and honest men. They conceded if the vote were an honest one, Kansas would vote against slavery.

The illegal voters elected a pro-slavery legislature that enacted all kinds of legislation that favored slavery and slave owners. Residents of Kansas were unable to live with the situation. When President Pierce sided with the pro-slavery legislature, chaos and murder reigned. One of the fanatical anti-slavery men in Kansas at the time was John Brown. Federal troops were sent to stop the hemorrhaging in what became known as "bleeding Kansas."

Kansas was only the start of things to come. In October of 1859, John Brown was in Maryland raising recruits for an armed rebellion in the South to free the slaves. He and his men raided the U.S. Army weapons arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia for weapons to begin the fight. Robert E. Lee, who was stationed in Texas but home on leave in Virginia, commanded the military unit sent to handle the situation. Ten of Brown's eighteen men were killed in the ensuing action and Brown surrendered. He was tried, convicted and hung.

Among abolitionists and the intellectuals, John Brown was made a martyr to the cause of prohibiting slavery. John Brown was almost certainly an insane murderer and a criminal; nevertheless, his name, and its identification with anti-slavery achieved a fame greater than he ever deserved. It was indicative of the fanaticism of both sides --- totally devoid of reason. Making Kansas a slave state was as erroneous as making John Brown a martyr. Both were delusions.

< John Brown

Sam Houston saw emotionalism rise above reason in Texans. He tried to explain the need for Texans to work to hold the Union together. Texans would not listen and did not want to hear. The John Brown incident brought a national reaction. This reaction was fueled to even greater intensity, when newspaper stories revealed John Brown was financially backed by northern bankers, ministers, and professional men. These men supported John Brown's crusade to invade the South and free the slaves. The North's reaction was - righteousness. The South's - indignation. Both sides reached levels of hysteria and paranoia. At the peak of this emotional period came the Democratic National Convention in April of 1860.

ELECTION OF 1860

The Texas Democrats who represented Texas at the convention were known as Calhoun Democrats. They supported the hardline views of John C. Calhoun. The Texas delegation was led by Irishman Guy Morrison Bryan. Bryan and the Calhoun Democrats controlled the Texas State Convention of the Democratic Party. They sent delegates to the Democratic National Convention in Charleston, South Carolina who were not afraid to talk secession.

< Guy Morrison Bryan

Guy Bryan was in the Texas Revolution. He carried Travis' plea for help from Bell's Landing to Brazoria and Velasco. He would later be the Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives. As chairman of the Texas delegation, he saw to it that the Texas delegates did not support the leading candidate the Democrats had for the election of 1860, Stephen Douglas.

When it became apparent the convention was going to support Douglas, Bryan and the Texas Democrats, together with seven other southern state delegations walked out of the convention. The eight states held a rump convention in Baltimore. This convention was controlled by the more radical element of the southern Democratic Party, so the conservative plantation owners and other men of property (including the largest slave owners) formed yet another rump convention and called themselves the Constitutional Union Party. These men wanted to avoid secession. Sam Houston was nominated as one of this convention's Presidential candidates. Other men were nominated and in the end, John Bell of Tennessee represented the Constitutional Union Party. John Bell, interestingly, was the only other Southerner Senator to vote against the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. John C. Breckenridge represented the Southern Democrats, and the Democratic Party was represented by Douglas.

The Democrats were split three ways and gave the election to the new Republican Party. The Republican candidate was Abraham Lincoln.

On September 22, 1860, during the campaign, an ill 67 year old Sam Houston spoke at a political meeting in Austin:

What is there that is free that we haven't got? Are our rights invaded and no government to protect us? No!

Are our institutions wrested from us and others foreign to our taste forced upon us? No!

Is the right of free speech, a free press, or free sufferage taken from us ...?

Has our property been taken from us and the government failed to interpose...?

No, none of these! Whence then this clamor for disunion...?

Houston in other speeches and private conversation, pointed out, if Lincoln were elected, he would not control the Congress nor the Supreme Court. These two, of the three parts of the United States government, would keep in check any radical moves of the Executive. Sam Houston asked his fellow Texans, as citizen of the United States of America to work within the Union. But Texas and the South would hear none of it.

Houston also appealed to the Texans as fellow citizens of the former Republic of Texas for an invasion of Mexico to form an American or Texas protectorate. Houston increased the strength of the Texas Rangers and asked the U. S. War Department for weapons and ammunition for "defensive purposes against Indian attacks and Mexican threats."

The Buchanan administration was in favor of Mexico being an American protectorate, but not one led by Sam Houston and the Texans, that might lead to Sam Houston being elected President of the United States. The request was denied.

Houston next turned to the British who were having problems with Mexico repurdiating debts. British bondholders were left with worthless paper, Houston sought financing from them for an invasion that would pay back their money and allow him the opportunity to divert Texans from secession by forcing them to participate in the invasion plan, for if it failed, the Mexicans might again invade Texas.

While the British bondholders were considering the idea, Houston sought a leader to command the invasion. He went to his trusted friend, Albert M. Lea, and asked for his advice. He suggested Robert E. Lee, who was then stationed in Texas. Houston asked Lea to sound out Lee on the plan for a protectorate. Robert E. Lee told Albert Lea that he was an admirer of Sam Houston since his West Point days when Houston was President of the Board of Visitors for the academy, he admired Houston's conservative principles and his vote in 1854 on the Kansas-Nebraska Act, but that he, as an officer in the United States Army took his direction from the United States government and if it desired an invasion of Mexico or wanted to deter an invasion of Mexico, he would follow the orders of the United States government.

Next, Houston asked Ben McCulloch if he would lead the invasion of Mexico, but before McCulloch answered, the British bondholders decided to not fund the expedition.

Meanwhile the election went on. Lincoln won 40% of the popular vote and the three Democrats together won 60 %. While that may appear to add up to a rejection of Lincoln, it was more decidedly a rejection of slavery. Douglas was against slavery and his popular vote was 29% of all votes cast. When Douglas' figures are added to Lincoln's percentage they combine to represent 69% for candidates against slavery.

Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United States despite the fact his name did not appear on the ballot of a single southern state. Within a week of Lincoln's election, South Carolina seceded, in January 1861. The states of Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia and Louisiana all quickly followed with secession legislation in their legislatures.

Sam Houston continued to speak out against secession for Texas. He knew the North would not let half the Union leave peaceably. Something, several southern politicians were claiming.

Unable to reach men with his stand, Sam Houston spoke to a meeting of women:

Some of you laugh to scorn the idea of bloodshed as the result of secession.

But let me tell you what is coming ...

Your fathers and husbands, your sons and brothers will be herded at the point of a bayonet ...

they (The Union) will overwhelm the South.

SECESSION

Governor Sam Houston was under pressure to call a convention to discuss secession. He did everything he could to avoid it. When J. M Calhoun, a Commissioner from Alabama sent by the states that had seceded came to Texas to invite Texans to join them, Houston, in a public speech knowing it too late to appeal to his audience as Americans, tried again to apeal to them as Texans. He declared Texas had special problems and dreams different from the other Southern States that sought to secede from the Union. Houston said:

Texas has views of expansion not common to many of her sister States. ...the same spirit of enterprise that founded a Republic here, will carry her institutions Southward and Westward.

Later in Waco he spoke of a:

...seperate Republic of the Lone Star.

There was never much question whether Texas would secede or not, but there were those who questioned if it should join with the Southern states in forming a confederacy or if it sould again seek to become an independent republic. Houston attempted to speak to that issue, but he comprimised it when he opposed secession.

Not to be dissuaded, the political leaders calling for secession asked Houston to call a special session of the legislature. When Houston failed to respond, a special convention was called by secessionists. Among these men was John S. Ford. Houston said such a convention would have no authority, but it found support and was endorsed by the Texas Legislature. The Secession Convention was called and met. Judge Robert C. Campbell presented the ordinance to secede. The Convention voted on February 1, 1861 to secede but with a catch.

Houston was able to get the Convention to agree to a public referendum on the matter. Texas was the only state to have a public vote on the issue. The actual motion on the ballot to the people of Texas was: unless Texans voted against it, on March 2, 1861, Texas Independence Day (also Sam Houston's birthday), Texas would secede from the United States of America. At the Capitol in Austin, before the vote by the people of Texas was taken, the flag of the United States of America was taken down and the Lone Star flag raised in its place.

In anticipation of a vote in favor of secession, the Convention arranged for militia units to be ready to take over U.S facilities on Texas territory. Ben McCulloch was to take Texas militia units to San Antonio and John S. Ford was to lead militia companies to the lower Rio Grande Valley to take possession of military posts. Others were dispatched to take the frontier forts.

Five Hundred men from Austin to Galveston assembled in Galveston to be placed under Ford's command. One of these companies was the Jefferson Davis Guard commanded by Frederick H. Odlum, brother of Benjamin Odlum. Benjamin fought with King and Fannin in the Texas Revolution but avoided their fate. Benjamin went on to serve in the early Texas Legislatures. The Odlum family was from County Kildare, Ireland. Benjamin Odlum was born there. His daughter, Annie Elizabeth Odlum, was married to a man in Frederick Odlum's company. Her brother, Edward John Odlum, was also a member of the company, as was her sister's husband, Patrick H. Hennessy. The unit was made up of Irish from Houston and Galveston. Most of the men were dockworkers at the two ports. Now they were artillerymen in the Confederate Army.

The man Annie Odlum was married to was Richard William Dowling. He was the company's First Lieutenant. Dowling was born in Ireland in County Galway near the city of Tuam. He came to America as a child in the care of his older sister, Honora. Honora Dowling must have done well by her young charge. By 1858, Dick Dowling was married to Annie and was the owner of his own business in Houston.

..........................................................Mr. and Mrs. Dowling >

His business was a saloon and billiard parlor called "The Shades." Dowling was a forward thinker; his business was the first in Houston to have gas lights installed. After a time, Dick Dowling sold this business to open another saloon known as the Bank of Bacchus, or simply "The Bank" as it was called by most Houstonians of the day. Dick Dowling was a popular man in Houston and his business flourished. Soon, he owned two businesses.

Dowling was a member of the Fire Department's Hook and Ladder Company No.1, and a member of the Houston Light Artillery. Both organizations were typical of the ante bellum South. They did the work for which they were intended; but they also maintained a great interest in fancy uniforms, parades, and balls. This changed, however, as thing were beginning to get serious. In 1860, Dick Dowling joined the new militia company. This one was also organized by his wife's uncle, but its goals were more military and the organization was officially chartered by the state.

In 1861, Dick Dowling and his new company were in Galveston awaiting sea transport to join "Old Rip" Ford in the Rio Grande Valley. The Jefferson Davis Guard was the name of the newly organized artillery unit who marched without their social calendars. The Davis Guard, as they came to be called, was ordered to go aboard the Union Tug. The boat was old and there was a question about it being able to make it to the intended debarkation point, Brazos Santiago, an island opposite Point Isabel. The Davis Guard were no sooner on the boat when they wanted off. Not exactly strangers to vessels, many of the men were stevedores, they felt the ship was not seaworthy. Captain Odlum agreed, and marched them off. You can imagine the scene at dockside; other units waiting to board, sweethearts, wives and many supporters, even bands on hand, as were the egos of those in charge of the operation. These men were not very happy with the Davis Guard getting off the boat. It was making a difficult situation more difficult. A heated dispute between Odlum and the commander of the operation did nothing to resolve the issue. A commissioner, appointed by the Secession Convention to oversee the organizing of the militia units, Ebenezer Nichols, sided with the Davis Guard and arranged for them to board another boat, the General Rusk. The Captain of the General Rusk was Leon Smith. At another time and place, Smith and the Davis Guard will make history. The Davis Guard and the other companies on board arrived at Brazos Santiago without further incident. These men, as well as other companies transported on other vessels, took possession of the military facility on the island from the Union forces. Lieutenant Sidney Sherman of the Lone Star Rifles, the son of General Sidney Sherman, raised the Lone Star flag over the island.

Colonel Ford ordered some of the units to march on Fort Brown. Colonel Ford went forward with the troops to Fort Brown were he found a problem. The commander there refused to surrender the fort, at least until he had orders from General Twiggs, Commander of all Union forces in Texas.

General David E. Twiggs was stationed in San Antonio. He relieved Robert E. Lee of the post the day Lincoln was elected. General Twiggs was 71 years old and a Georgian.

< General David E. Twiggs

Talks began with General Twiggs on February 8, 1861. That night, 90 of McCulloch's men crept into the fort and disarmed the sentries and then the men in the barracks. There were 400 troops outside the walls waiting to support McCulloch's men. The Union garrison numbered only about 160 men. Twigg held out for instructions from Washington D.C.. Twiggs tried for several weeks, before McCullochs men surprised him, to get some guidance from Washington. He was, naturally, expecting some sort of situation. When no instructions came from Washington and McCulloch presented him with a fait accompli, General Twiggs surrendered all U.S. facilities and equipment in Texas to militia units under Irishman Ben McCulloch. This was done February 15, 1861. The U. S. Army later court martialed General Twiggs for his actions. The American flag was taken down and the flag of Texas raised in a tranquil manner that was repeated at all the other, formerly U.S., installations except two.

At El Paso, James Magoffin recieved the surrender of Federal properties, while John W. R. Baylor took command at Fort Bliss. Things were not so smooth at two other locations.

Camp Colorado, which was commanded by Colonel Edmund Kirby Smith, and Fort Brown. Colonel Smith turned his facility over to the Texans only upon direct orders from his Union commanders. Colonel Edmund Kirby Smith later served the Confederacy as stubbornly as he did the Union. Things got tense at the other hold out, Fort Brown.

Both sides were beginning to feel sweat form on their trigger fingers. Ford negotiated with the commander. He used all the skills his varied career made available to him. John Salmon Ford had been a medical doctor, lawyer, prominent journalist, a State Senator, mayor of a the state's capitol, as well as a captain of Rangers. Ford used his most persuasive arguments to convince the Commander to turn the fort over to the Texas militia units. He was successful. The Texans took over the post and its supplies. Ford returned to Brazos Santiago. were he learned the Davis Guard were a problem.

While Ford and the others were at Fort Brown, the Davis Guard stayed behind on Brazos Santiago. They were assigned quarters that were less than satisfactory. A lot less satisfactory than other units left at Brazos Santiago. The Irishmen felt they were assigned the poorest quarters because they were discriminated against. Many of them were foreign born and spoke with a brogue. The entire affair became quite emotional, with the result that it was brought to the attention of the officer Ford left in command at Brazos Santiago, Lieutenant Colonel Hugh McLeod. Mcleod disbanded the Davis Guard for "mutinous and disorderly conduct." Upon his return, Colonel Ford re-instated the Davis Guard.

Later, Ford moved into Fort Brown and made it his headquarters. He negotiated a trade agreement with the Mexicans. He convinced the Mifflin Kenedy and Richard King company, who at this time dominated the shipping trade in the area, to register their boats with the Mexican government so they could better serve the Confederacy without fear of harassment from the United States Navy. This strategy proved crucial in the months and years ahead.

While the Texas militia units were taking control of military facilities and equipment in Texas, the other six southern states met in Montgomery, Alabama. On February 4, 1861 they convened to set up a new government to be known as the Confederates States of America. The convention voted to admit Texas. A representative was sent to Texas to administer the oath of allegiance to its government. The representative from the Confederacy was met by representatives of the Texas Secession Convention and the State Legislature. They endorsed his mission and called for Texans to vote for the secession of Texas.

On February 23rd, 76% of Texas voters voted for secession from the United States. Sam Houston avoided turning loose of the government as long as possible. On Saint Patrick's Day eve, March 16, 1861, all Texas officials were to take the oath to the Confederate States of America. When Houston would not come forward and take the oath, the Secession Convention which was still in session, removed him from office. The Convention appointed Lieutenant Governor Clark as Governor in Houston's place. Governor Clark then brought Texas into the Confederacy.